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KIN346 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Thiamine Pyrophosphate, Casimir Funk, Pyruvate Carboxylase

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Danny M Pinicero
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Kin346 protein + vitamins
James Lind British physician. Discovered need for vitamin C
o Scurvy caused by deficiency of vitamin C
o Needed for collagen synthesis
o Fatigue, anemia, hemorrhaging, teeth loosening, softening
of bones
Casimir Funk Polish biochemist
o Late 1800s into early 1900s
o Isolated an amine in rice, nitrogen containing functional
o Discovered providing amine improved the health of thiamin
deprived chickens
o Referred to this amine as vital therefore a vital amine
WHAT are vitamins?
o Organic molecules (carbon based)
o Required in small units (milli or micro)
o Individual units not like chains or macronutrients
o Do not contribute to energy needs (kcal)
o Classification fat soluble (ADEK) and water soluble (BC)
How are they absorbed?
o Water soluble vitamins
Vitamin C
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8 B-vitamins: B1 thiamin, B2 riboflavin, B3
niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folate, B6, B12
absorbed through intestinal cells and into the
Cardiovascular system
dissolves into blood so freely transported
susceptible to kidney filtration if beyond storage
vitamin B12 is stored more than others.
o General rule: need daily ingestion of water soluble vitamins
(since not stored) but not critical
o E.g. vitamin C deficiency symptoms manifest after 20-40
o Toxicity: rare but possible (B6 is of most concern)
How are vitamins stored? Pt2
o Fat soluble
Absorbed with dietary lipids….packaged into
Bioavailability: 40-90% of vitamins consumed
Efficiency decreases with grater caloric ingestion
o Pathway lacteal lymphatic system CV system
o Lipoproteins “broken up”
o Chylomicron remnant taken up by liver stores vitamins
Vitamin B1
Part of the co-enzyme TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate)
Works with PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase)
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o PDH = enzyme = protein. Turns pyruvate (3C) into acetyl
coA (2C) which will then enter krebs cycle. Therefore, no
PDH means no PDH means no krebs cycle
RDA: men>women
Deficiency: caused by reduction in food intake
o Beriberi (I can’t I can’t) chronic thiamin deficiency, chronic
weakness, weight loss.
o Brown vs white rice…. (white rice has less thiamin)
o Sources: whole grains, pork
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin
Coenzyme (FMN, FAD)
Electron acceptor/transporter
RDA: men > women
Deficiency ariboflavinosis, inflammation of membranes
(eyes, mouth, gastrointestinal system, skin)
Accompanies other micronutrient deficiencies
Sources: milk and alternatives, whole grains, cereal products
(fortified) and white mushrooms.
Vitamin B3
Niacin nicotinic acid and nicotinamide …precursor of NAD and
Can be synthesized from tryptophan (EAA)
Antioxidant, lipid/cholesterol synthesis
Deficiency = pellagra (4D’s: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death
o Sources: animal products (eggs, milk, meat, poultry, fish),
and whole grains.
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