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MUSIC 140- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 50 pages long!)


Department
Music
Course Code
MUSIC140
Professor
Simon Wood
Study Guide
Final

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UW
MUSIC 140
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1
What is Popular Music?
Dependent on the development of
1. Different from “folk” and “art” music genres
2. The Industrial Revolution changes the system of barter economy to a system of
monetary currency (also contributed to 3, the Middle Class, and 4, the growth of urban
populations)
3. The Emergence of the Middle Class, who possesses disposable income
4. Large Urban Populations (as a result of the rural-to-urban shift)
5. Copyright Law -> music itself is an idea (Law originated from Queen Mary, who also
started stationary companies; musicians have to register and sell royalty)
6. Technologies of mass production and broadcasting -> records
By 1945:
1. End of the “Big Band” era
2. Big Band had dominated the music industry since the mid 30s
Example: “Sentimental Journey” (Doris Day, 1944), focuses on instrumental, performed by
Les Brown and His Band of Renown
o Significant figures: Boney Goodman, Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Tommy Dorsey
o Returning to focus on vocalist
o The music industry divided into 3 distinct categories:
1. Popular(Pop): White/Middle Class/Urban
2. Race: Black, regardless of class or location
3. Hillbilly: Origins in poor, white, rural -> now migrating to urban areas (particular
in Southern US) -> Country
o Products of the music industry were sheet music and recordings
o Sheet music dominated recordings until the the late 1920s
o While sheet music was still important, by the end of WWII, the recording industry had
come to dominated
Development of the American Music Industry
o What creates the conditions for popular music to become a consumer product?
1790s to 1830s - Amendments to the copyright law to cover sheet music
The Victorian Ballad: Minstrel Shows and Parlour Music
o Minstrel Shows
Variety show that depicted African-Americans in a racist and stereotypical light
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Instruments: Guitar, Banjo, Fiddle, also Piano
Most important composer: Steven Foster
Example: “Massa’s in de cold cold ground” (1852)
Characteristics: guitar accomaniment and vocal control
o Parlour Music
Industrial Revolution
Rise of the Middle Class
Luxury item = Piano = symbol of wealth
Daughters pursue “leisure” activities
Example: “Believe Me, If All Those Endearing Young Charms” (Early 1800s) by
Thomas Moore
Parlous Song - AABA form in terms of melody
Characteristics: Piano accomaniment, vocal control, and with themes such as
loyalty, honesty, control, and restraint
o Demand for newly composed songs leads to the increased organization of the music
industry
Tin Pan Alley
o Charles K. Harris - “After the Ball” (1892): Sheet music sold over 5M copies = “The
First Hit Song” -> Why? Urbanization and population growth
o The success of “After the Ball” gave birth to Tin Pan Alley (TPA)
o Both a musical style and a place
o Manhattan in NYC, became the centre of professional music making
o During the 20s and 30s, 21k publisher and 36k composers in a few blocks in TPA
o Division of labour: composers, lyricists, publishers, publicity(marketing), and
performers
o Sheet music dominated (though tra
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