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MUSIC140 Study Guide - Final Guide: Grand Wizzard Theodore, Muscle Shoals, Alabama, Fame Studios

Course Code
Simon Wood
Study Guide

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I’m only including more important stuff in this list for maximum efficiency of
cramming. I’m typing emeyers notes in my own words, I would recommend reading
them first once to better understand mine.
Industrial Revolution
Minstrel Show
- Variety show that was racist towards black people
- Hit peak during mid 1800s
- Massa’s in de cold ground – Steve Foster (1852)
- Vocal control: Well controlled voice
Parlour Music
- Middle class showing off wealth
- Parlor Songs
- 32 Bar AABA form
Tin Pan Alley
- After the Ball Charles Harris (1892)
- Introduced the idea of creating 1 hit song
- TPA was a music style and location
- Located in Manhattan NYC
Composers, singers, publishers, performers
- Style/attributes of TPA: Easy to sing and play, AABA form, close to film
industry, all ages listened
- Good example is somewhere over the rainbow:
Slavery and Black Culture
Work Songs
- Used to pass time, as well as set and coordinate work pace
- Song leader was important bc:
-> Songs aren’t actually worked out
-> Floating pool of verse
Characteristics of Black Music
1. Interest in percussive and distorted timbres
2. Being immersed in the music, very “into it”
3. Rythmic Complexity
4. Use of Riffs as well as call and response

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- A wandering male musician with acoustic guitar
- Sad, gloomy tone
- Themes included travel, economics and love
- Form: 12 bar blues
- AAB lyric pattern (sung at 1/5/9)
- 2 of the same lines of lyrics, then a contrast
- Call and response
- Floating pool of verse
Robert Johnson (1911-1938)
- Defined standards for blues guitar
- Died before fame
- Myth: Soul his soul to the devil at the Crossroads
- Use of dynamics
Tech Developments and their Impact
1877 Edison invents the phonograph
1892-1912 : Cylinders replaced by disks
1925 Industry standard speed 78rpm
At this time only recordings were TPA, other music wasn’t worth recording
Commercial Radio
- 28 stations in Jan 1922
- 570 stations in Dec 1922 (Most owned by CBS, NBC, Mutual)
- Network radio changes consumption from regional to national
- Music taste is nationalized
- Almost destroys recording industry
- Leads to race and hillbilly music
Hillbilly and Race
- Ralph Peer of Okeh records
- “Crazy blues” mamie smith (1920)
- First hit song recorded by black artist
- Opens door for black artists to record and sell records
- Maintain emotional distance
- Sung were unemotional similar to a story
- No drums
- Piano was defining feature in shift from country to city blues
- Beginning of guitar solos

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- First demo 1927
- Broadcasts begin 1939
- 1944-55 TV takes off, 411 stations in 1955
- Radio stations go on sale for private local interests
- Leads to black appeal radio
Black appeal Radio
WDIA Radio 1948
- First black appeal station
- Owned in Memphis Tenessee
- 1954: 200 black appeal stations
- Race is changed to rhythm and blues (RnB)
- Beginning of exposure to white middle class teens
- Transistor radio portable radio
Cover Versions (1954-56)
- Ray Charles invents Gospel
- Signed by Atlantic Records, first large record company to sign black artists
- Music was appealing to white audiences
Chicago Electric Blues
- Muddy Waters
- Emulating Robert Jonhson
- Chicago influences switch to electric guitar
- Introduction to distortion
This led to the moral panic of middle class whites, intro to cover versions
Tutti Frutti Little Richard (1955)
- His 1st big hit
- #2 RnB, #17 Pop
- Covered by Pat Boone 1956. #10 pop
Cover versions stop when rock n roll comes along
Alan Freed
- Coins term Rock and Roll (RnR)
- Specifically aimed at youth (first time this happens)
Bill Haley and the Comets
- Played Western Swing before RnR
- Takes off in 1955, doesn’t become famous: he is too old
End Midterm 1
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