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Final

MUSIC140 Study Guide - Final Guide: Saxophone, Music Industry, Country Blues


Department
Music
Course Code
MUSIC140
Professor
Simon Wood
Study Guide
Final

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Lecture 1
MAY 7TH
What is Popular Music?
Represents a whole series of meanings now
(Post World War II)
- a fusion of Rhythm n Blues (Black Culture), Country and Western (Southern
Rural White Culture), and Tin Pan Alley (Northern Urban White Culture)
- Dependant on the development of:
o The Industrial Evolution
o The Middle Class
o Large Urban Population
o Copyright Law
o Technologies of Mass Production and Broadcasting
By 1945:
- Music industry divided into 3 distinct categories:
1. Popular (or pop): white/ middle class/ urban
2. Race: black, regardless of class or location
3. Hillbilly: origins in poor, white, rural- is now migrating to urban areas
(particularly in the southern US)
- Products of the music industry are sheet music and recordings
- Sheet music dominates recordings until the late 1920s
- While sheet music is still important, by the end of WWOO the Recording
Industry has come to dominate
Development of American Music Industry:
- What creates conditions for Popular Music to become a consumer product?
1831- Amendments to the copyright law to cover sheet music
The Victorian Ballad: Minstrel Show and Parlour Music
Minstrel Show:
-variety show that depicted African-Americans in a racist and stereotypical light
not created blacks and the performers and song writers. Wore black face paint
stuff. Not representative of black culture
Most important composer was Steven Foster:
Example: “Massa’s in de cold, cold ground” (Steven Foster, 1852)
Characteristics:
- Guitar Accompaniment & fiddle
- Vocal Control
Foster wrote a lot for Minstrel show. Show depicted slavery as not being bad, b/c
they’re outside in the country they get fresh air, they take care of them. Didn’t
mention the bad stuff. The slaves were portrayed by speaking very phonetically was
reinforcing stereotypes.

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Think about what the singer would look like- man standing still, restrained physical
performance, formal dress, controlled
Black singers usually move around
Lyrics are disturbing, say the slaves would mourn the death of their masters …
Enforced the ideas that they liked/cared for the slave owners
Violin and Fiddle are the same the difference is the way you play them.
Parlor Music:
Industrial Revolution
Rise of Middle Class
Luxury items- Piano- a symbol of wealth
Daughters pursue “leisure” activities
How show you’re middle class, you buy things, conspicuous consumption. Big house,
new car often, etc. . Victorian Era get a piano, it’s big, loud, expensive and no one
uses it to make money since you’re middle class. It is used to demonstrate a useless
women, show successful b/c the women in your family don’t need to work, u can
make them extra useless, let them have long painted fingernail, outfits they can’t
move around in well. Pay to teach women how to play them.
Used for social skills, like dinners and things. Daughters quiet, and dressed in
ridiculous things, younger plays, the older sings. Used to entertain. Invite boss and
son to dinner. Daughters don’t write music, teach music, etc. Song writers wrote
stuff for the middle class Victorian women
Example: Believe Me, if All those Endearing Young Charms- Thomas Moore (early
1800s)
Parlour Song- AABA form (pic on phone) has piano accompiment
Vrs 1:
A) Believe me, if all those endearing young charms, which I gaze on so fondly to-day
A) Were to change to by to-morrow, and fleet in my arms, Like fairy-gifts fading
away
B) Thou wouldst still be adored, as this moment thou art, Let they loveliness fade as
it will
A) And around the dear ruin each wish of my heart would entwine itself verdantly
still
Characteristics:
- Piano Accompaniment
- Vocal control
- Themes: loyalty, honesty, control, restraint
Demand for newly composed songs leads to the increased organization of the music
industry

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1830- try and make living in music, rise of middle class b/c they want it to play.
Have parlour music writers, performance a play the minstrel show
White middle class urban ppl, target to middle class ppl
At this point, not have modern music industry just yet
Most musicians died moderately wealthy or poor, none really got rich
Tin Pan Alley:
- Charles K Harris, After the Ball 1892
Message is the idea of being dedicated, trusting, honesty
Could have been any of the parlour songs, something happened with this
particular song. Sells a few copies, keeps selling and over a short period of
time sells 5 million copies in a place of less than 100 million ppl
Made him wealthy
Introduced an idea, if you write the one song that catches on you’re set for
life. Start pursuit of hit song
From 1890 to 1990 see the rural to urban shift.
Success of “After the Ball” gives birth to Tin Pan Alley (TPA)
Both a musical style and a place:
- Manhattan in New York City
- Becomes the center of professional music making
- During 20s 30s , 21,000 publishers and 36,000 composers
- Division of labour: composer, lyricists, publisher, publicity, performers
- Sheet music dominates- transaction to recordings begins during the 1920s
Divide labour- ppl are good at different things so have ppl good at things do those
and combine to sell a better final product assembly line
Ppl get good at job and know how much will produce in a day
Quality and predictability
Know who’s responsible for what
How got the name
In the summer NY is really hot, when you walk down the street, you see a bunch of
ppl with old out of tune pianos singing different sounds windows open etc.
What were they looking for a hit, money, Very few would make it, the gold rush was
happening so they called it tin pan alley. Cause they used them to find gold. Were
looking for that hit song to strike it rich
big things comes down to race and economy. Music played a big part is US history.
Canada isn’t a bad place to live when it comes to race, not the best but still better
than other places like the US. It’s still a big factor in the state (Boston Riots). Some
ppl still weird about Obama as president. Since they can get away with saying they
have a Kenyan Muslim as president. If paid attention would notice same problem
with all presidents.
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