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[PHIL 110A] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (34 pages long!)


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL110A
Professor
Jacqueline Feke
Study Guide
Final

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UW
PHIL 110A
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PHIL 110A (Section 2)
Introduction to Philosophy: Knowledge & Reality
Jacqueline Feke - Doctor Feke (jfeke@uwaterloo.ca)
What is Philosophy?
Philosophia (a “love of wisdom”) began in the 4th century BCE in ancient Greece.
Sophists are “wise men” known not necessarily for literacy (oral communication).
Philosophers are “lovers of wisdom” with a critical attitude. The name was appropriated by Plato
(a student of Socrates) and his contemporaries.
Plato’s school, The Academy, in Athens shifted wisdom from a public performance to a private
one and allowed individuals to gain prestige.
EPISTEMOLOGY
The study of knowledge.
METAPHYSICS
The study of reality.
The BEST things that exist – transcendental, theological, metaphysical…
There are two main components to a philosophical argument:
1. Premises (show the conclusions is true)
2. Conclusion (the statement you are attempting to prove)
Does the conclusion follow from the premises? Are the premises are true?
There are two types of arguments in philosophy:
1. Inductive (thesis isn’t proved conclusively, conclusion is probable based on evidence but not
certain, evaluated based on strong or wear evidence)
2. Deductive (evaluated on validity and soundness an argument is valid if the conclusions follows
directly from the premises, an argument is sound if it is valid and the premises/conclusion are all
true – note, an unsound argument can still have a true conclusion)
PLATO…
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Is it better to live a life in accordance with justice or injustice?
Plato describes the perfect city, Kallipolis, meaning “beautiful city”. He describes its inhabitants –
human beings with souls and bodies.
He studies two main activities thinking and perceiving. He explores the difference between
epistemology and metaphysics, describing two entities with no overlap that are different in how
we perceive and access them.
Sensible Realm Intelligible Realm
Material things
Imperfect, mortal (into and out of
existence), and changing
Immaterial forms
Perfect, immortal/eternal, and unchanging
Liken forms to particulars (distinct instances) versus universals (commonality).
Participation connects the two realms (e.g. “Selena is a human because she participates in the form
of a human”). Only forms are perfect.
Plato has an objectivist philosophy. The truth is the truth regardless of who perceives it as such.
Does someone’s interaction with something determine what it is?
There is a reasoning process that justifies our opinion and transforms it to knowledge
The line measures the clarity and opacity of objects in the two realms.
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