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Psych 101 Exam 2 Complete Summary Notes

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Amanda Clark

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Module 17: Introduction to Sensation and Perception Sensation sensory receptors/nervous system receive stimulus energies from environment Perception organizing and interpreting sensory info (enables us to recognize objects/events) Bottom-up processing sensory analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works up to the brain Top-down processing information processing, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experiences and expectations -absolute threshold may vary with age ex. Sensitivity to high-pitched sound declines with age Signal detection theory predicts how and when we will detect weak signals -measured as a ratio of hits to false alarms -a persons reactions vary as circumstances change (no single absolute threshold) Subliminal below absolute threshold for conscious awareness Priming activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing ones perception, memory, or response ex. When quickly flashed positive pictures (kittens), the picture of people after looked nicer; but when quickly flashed negative pictures (dead body), the people after didnt look as nice -sometimes we feel what we do not know and cannot describe Most of our information processing occurs automatically, out of sight, off the radar screen of our conscious minds. -subliminal procedures offer little or nothing of value to the marketing practitioner Difference threshold minimum difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50% of the time -also called the just noticeable difference Webers law to be perceived as different, 2 stimuli must differ by a constant proportion, NOT a constant amount ex. Must differ by 10%, not $100. ---> difference between $1000 and $1100 is just as noticeable as difference between $100,000 and $110,000; not difference between $100,000 and $100,100. Sensory adaptation diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus -after constant exposure to a stimulus, our nerve cells fire less frequently We perceive the world not exactly as it is, but as it is useful for us to perceive it. 1 Module 18: Vision Transduction conversion of one form of energy into another ex. Transforming sight, sound, and smell into neural impulses that our brains can interpret Wavelength distance from one wave peak to the next -in light, determines the hue (colour) Intensity amount of energy in light waves (determined by a waves amplitude/height) -influences brightness (for light) or loudness (for hearing) -light enters eye through cornea, which protects the eye and bends light to provide focus Iris adjusts light intake Lens focuses incoming light rays into an image on the retina -accommodation - focuses by changing shape/curvature Retina multilayered tissue on the eyeballs sensitive inner surface (contains rods, cones, and neurons) Process of light through eye: cornea ---> pupil ---> lens ---> retina -millions of receptor cells convert particles of light into neural impulses and forward them to the brain Rods retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray -peripheral and twilight vision (faint light) Cones retinal receptors that detect fine detail and give rise to colour sensations -concentrated near centre of retina -functions in daylight/well lit conditions -at rods and cones, light energy is converted to neural signals, activating bipolar cells. The bipolar cells then activate the ganglion cells which converge to form the optic nerve that carries the info to the brain Process of neural signals: Rods & cones ---> bipolar cells ---> ganglion cells ---> optic nerve ---> brain -retina also relays information to a corresponding location in the visual cortex (at occipital lobe) Blind spot point where optic nerve leaves the eye -blind spot because no receptor cells are located there Fovea central focal point of retina; where cones cluster 2 Feature detectors nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of stimulus (shape, angle, movement, etc.); in occipital lobe -feature detectors pass info to other areas where supercell clusters respond to more complex patterns -integrate info (specific gaze, head angle, body movement) and fire when the cues indicate the direction of someones attention and approach (ex. anticipating someones next move) -computers undergo step-by-step serial processing -our brain engages in -parallel processing: doing many things at once -brain divides a visual scene into subdimensions (colour, movement, form, depth) and works on each aspect simultaneously; perceptions are constructed by integrating these parallel works Blindsight localized area of blindness in part of ones vision (from damage to visual cortex; ex. stroke) Dual processing separate visual system for perception and action -two-track mind Summary of visual information processing: Scene ---> retinal processing ---> feature detection ---> parallel processing ---> recognition -males are usually colour deficient (rather than females) because the defect is genetically sex-linked Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-colour) theory retina contains 3 different colour receptors (one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue) which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any colour -people that are colour-deficient lack functioning red- or green-sensitive cones (or both) and their vision is either monochromatic (one-colour) or dichromatic (two-colour) Afterimages ex. when you stare at a green square for a while and look at a white sheet of paper, you see the opponent colour (in this case, red) -Hering thought there must be 2 additional colour processes: One responsible for red-vs.-green perception, and one for blue-vs.-yellow perception Opponent-process theory opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable colour vision ex. in retina and thalamus, some neurons are turned on by red but off by green 3 Module 19: Hearing Audition hearing Wavelength determines frequency: Short wavelength = high frequency (high pitched sounds) Long wavelength = low frequency (low pitched sounds) Amplitude determines loudness: Large amplitude = loud sounds Small amplitude = quiet sounds Frequency number of wavelengths that pass a point in a given time Pitch a tones highness or lowness Path of sound waves: channels sound waves to auditory canal Outer Ear Auditorysoundwaves continue to the eardrum Canal membrane that vibrates with the waves Eardrum transmits eardrum's vibrations through piston Middle Ear made up of 3 bones: hammer, anvil, stirrup vibrations continue to the cochlea Piston cochlea: snail-shaped tube vibrations cause cochlea's membrane (oval window) to vibrate, jostling fluid that fills the tube motion causes ripples in the basilar membrane, bending hair cells lining its surface Inner Eahair cell movement triggers impulses in adjacent nerve cells, whose axons converge to form the auditory nerve, which sends neural messages (via thalamus) to the temporal lobe's auditory cortex Summary: vibrating air ---> moving piston ---> fluid waves ---> electrical impulses ---> brain -damage to hair cells accounts for most hearing loss -ringing in ears after exposure to loud noise indicates unhappy hair cells (>100 db) -brain can interpret loudness from the number of activated hair cells (louder sound = greater number) 4
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