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Midterm 1 Summary Notes for Modules Covered up-to-Date These are the summary notes for all the modules that will be covered on the midterm on October 26, 2010. It basically summarizes each module and includes defitnitions. Easy to follow and understand :)

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Richard Ennis

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Modules13 46 810 11 1315 18 2022 2325Module 1 Willhelm Wudnt wouldnt establish the first psychological laboratory in 1879 Structuralism the school of psychology that means you have to use what you have in your brain to understand the mind introspection looking inwards Functionalism psychology uses how our mental and behavioural processes function and how they enable us to adapt survive and flourishBehaviourism the view that psychology should be an objective science studies behaviour without reference to mental processes Humanist Psychology healthy people can personally growemphasizes growth potential of healthy people The individuals potential for personal growth Cognitive neuroscience study of the brain activity linked with cognition perception and thinking Psychology the science of behaviour and mental processesNatureNurture nature is how youre born genes and nurture is how you are brought up Natural selectionthe range of inherited traits only some are selected that are passed down to another generation ones related to survival and reproductionLevels of analysis different views biological psychological sociocultural Bio psychosocial approach use different levels of analysis Basic research increase your knowledge Applied research aims to solve practical problems Counselling psychology assist people with problems in living and in achieving greater well being Clinical Psychology studies assesses and treats people with psychological disorders Psychiatry SQ3R study method survey question read rehearse review Module 2 Thinking critically with psychological science Intuition is wrongone must consider factors that contribute to intuition Hindsight bias tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it I knew it all alongHindsight bias and over confidence to overestimate our intuition scientific inquiry can help us differentiate Scientific attitudeo A curious eagernesso Sceptically scrutinized competing ideaso Open minded humilityModules13 46 810 11 1315 18 2022 2325 Critical thinking smart thinking examines assumptions recognize hidden values and assess outcomesAttitudes and behaviours vary across cultures and underlying principles vary lessMore similarities in gender than differencesAnimals o Some psychologists are interested in animal behaviour o Some are interested in understanding the physiological and psychological differences between animals and humanso Animals in experiments rarely experience painPeople o Researchers temporarily stress or deceive people to learn something important o Professional ethical standards provide guidelines concerning treatment of both human and animal participantsPsychologists values influence their choice of research topics Module 3 Research strategies how psychologists ask and answer questions Theoryan explanation using an integrated set of principles that organize observations and predicts behaviours or eventsHypothesis testable prediction often implied by a theory Scientific method a selfcorrecting method for asking questions and observing natures answersTheoriesHypothesis Research and Observations Operational Definitions A statement of procedures used to define research variables Example generositysurvey about generosity generosity would mean money contributed Replication repeats the essence of the study usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic findings extend to other participants and circumstances A theory will be useful if1Effectively organizes a range of selfreports and observations 2Implies clear predicationsCase Study An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles Survey
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