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Midterm #3 notes these notes cover what have been covered thus far in the course, they are detailed and very helpful.

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Colin Mac Leod

Thursday, 11 November 2010 Understanding Emotion Definition Emotion: a positive or negative reaction to a perceived or remembered object or event, accompanied by a subjective feeling Emotion: a response involving o Physiological arousal o Expressive behaviour(s) o Conscious experience Emotion vs. Motivation o Differentiating o Emotion: usually external stimulus, subjective, affective o Motivation: usually internal stimulus, goal-directed o Emotional physiological changes comes from the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system o When one experiences an emotion, pupils usually do dilate because of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. People may also see these changes: o Decreased salivation o Increased respiration o Accelerated heart rate o Inhibited digestions and stress hormones are secreted o The parasympathetic division of you ANS takes over the calming of ones body. It decreases the amount o stress hormones being secreted, but those in your bloodstream will linger awhile, so arousal diminishes gradually. Differences among specific emotions o Positive moods tend to trigger more left frontal lobe activity. The left frontal lobes rich supply of dopamine receptors may help explain why a peppy left hemisphere predicts a perky personality. o A neural pathway that increases dopamine levels runs from the frontal lobes to a nearby cluster of neurons, the nucleus accumbens. o This small region lights up when people experience natural or induced pleasures o Those with high spinal cord injury experienced their emotions more above the neck. o However, those with low spinal cord injuries, who had lost sensation only in their legs, reported little change in their emotions. o If people have suffered damage to the nearby hippocampus, they still show the emotional reaction but they wont be able to remember why. o Those who have lost use of their amygdala are unusually trusting of scary- looking people. Intuitive (common sense) model o We begin to shake when we are scared. o The cognitive emotional experiences dictates the physiological one- you dont shake until youre afraid o Prevalent theory James-Lange Theory o People feel afraid because they are shaking. o Conscious feeling is based on physiological changes o Perception of the physiological changes is the emotion o Feeling of emotion is feedback from bodily changes in response to external stimuli Cannon-Bard Theory o Co-occurring as result of stimulus; subcordical activity arises due to the stimulus and then two tracks grows out of that, one that causes the fear and one that causes autonomic arousal; those two together are the emotion. o 3 major objections to James-Lange: o Bodily changes do not differ much between emotions, despite clear cut experience o Internal organs are relatively insensitive (Few nerves) and internal changes occur too slowly to be the source o Artificially inducing bodily change does not yield a true emotional experience Complicating Emotion o Emotion is not momentary; unfolds over time o Conscious experience integrates physiology and situation o Importance of cognitive appraisal of the situation, based on priming, expectation, etc. o Catharsis: emotional release In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that releasing aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges o Feel-good, do-good phenomenon: peoples tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood o Subjective well-being: self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of object well being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate peoples quality of life. o Adaptation-level phenomenon: our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience. o Satisfaction and dissatisfaction, success and failure- all are relative to our recent experience o Relative deprivation: the sense that we are wrose off than others with hwom we compare ourselves Schater & Singer (1962) o Shame= new vitamin effects on vision o Two injective groups, wait for effect o group got epinephrine/adrenaline (increased heart rate, jittery) o group got saline/salt water (avoid placebo) o Three instruction groups (split two groups, into three subgroups) o Correct information (jittery, fast heart) o No information (Control) o Misinformation (numb, headache) Manipulation & Results o Confederate (working with experimenters) in waiting room acts angry or happy; observe through one-way mirror o Those given correct information showed no emotional behaviour, had explanation (already knew why they felt the way they did) o Those given no or incorrect information acted angry or happy, too o Saline (control): had no emotion whether given correct information, no information or misinformation
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