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Week 8- Cognitive Psychology I .docx

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Week 8-Clinical Psychology I a. Clinical Psychology I: Psychological Disorders  5 different classes of disorders  Anxiety-Phobia  Mood-Depression, Bipolar  Psychotic-schizophrenia  Dissociate disorders, multiple personalities/Dissociative Identity  Personality disorders –anitsocial.sociopath b. Anxiety Disorders  Phobias o Irrational fear o Fairly common condition o Phobias are quite treatable  Generalized Anxiety Disorder-Panic Disorder o Overwhelming sense of anxiety o Not localized as being caused by any particular thing o Can become quite debilitating o Associated with panic attacks  Hearts going to stop  Sweaty  Cant breath  Cant do anything else while experiencing one o Agoraphobia  Fear of open places, of being out in the world  Fear of having panic attack, while outside of their home  Cases where individuals have not left homes for 20 years o Obsessive compulsive disorder  Can vary from mildly obsessive to extremely obsessive and completely debilitating  Two things that characterize obsessive compulsive disorder  Repetitive thoughts  Repetitive behaviors  Psychoanalytic perspective o Need therapy to solve some deep lying problem which is causing the disorder o Little hans  Scared of horses  Has anxiety arising from Oedipus complex which was being transferred onto horses  Terrified that his father will castrate him due to sexual desire for his mother  Learning Perspective o Things people develop anxieties like little albert o We gain anxiety by associating whatever the stimuli is with something that is aversive o It can generalize from one thing to another o Treatment would be to uncondition it-Virtual Reality training o OCD-reward people for not doing compulsion  Social cognitive perspective o Observational learning o Develop certain phobias by watching others and observing what they are afraid of o This would suggest that you could use models who are doing non-fearful behavior to try to overcome the fear  Biological Perspective o OCD can be treated with drugs o Inborn biological fear for certain things that would make sense for us to be afraid of c. Mood Disorders  Major affective disorder/unipolar depression o Profoundly depressed and lasting for over 6 months o Can interfere dramatically with an individuals life o Poor appetite o Insomnia o Feelings of worthlessness o Loss of interest o Sleeping 14-15 hours day o Gain weight due to lack of activity o Depression is persistent, clear thoughts of suicide  Bipolar depression o Extreme highs and lows o Low side is Major affective disorder or unipolar depression o High side is euphoric, grandiose, think they can do anything o Negative side to this high is that they can become easily agitated, and possibly violent o Often are reckless in behavior believing that nothing will happen to them o Can waste huge amount of money o Number of famous people who have been manic depressives (bipolar) o Pressured speech  Can’t decipher what they are saying  Speech is coming so rapidly that the words are not even fully formed  Individuals with pressured speech typically have super high energy  Major symptom is they haven’t slept for weeks o How quickly do the moods change  Rapid cycling-moods can change within house and within days  More common is change in 3 month cycles and sometimes years as well  Seems to vary within the individual and between individuals as well o Gender difference in depression  Women suffer from depression far more than men  Explanation of mood disorders o Psychoanalytic perspective  Depression is anger turned inward  Part of therapy is to get anger expressed at the appropriate target o Biological perspective  Strong genetic influences-both unipolar and bipolar disorders run in the same family  With certain brain neurotransmitters there seems to be depletion in depressed individuals-in particular noradrenalin and serotonin  Drugs that elevate the levels of noradrenalin and serotonin are effective anti depressants.  Do the highs and lows balance out? No  The problem may be in the way in which neurotransmitters are regulated in the synapse.  One biological explanation is hath neurotransmitters are not regulated properly in the synapse so that the individual may at times get too much, and at other times, get too little o Social cognitive perspective  Treatments that combine drugs with the social cognitive approach are the most effective  Attributions fo
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