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Test 2 - Textbook Notes for Chapters 5-7 Excellent textbook notes including all definitions in bold. ~30 pages of Word notes, nicely spaced and organized. *Notes taken from textbook called "Infants and Children" by Laura E. Berk - applies to the 6th a

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Tom Ruttan

Chapter NotesPSYCH 211Chapter 5Body GrowthIn the first 2 years bodies change at a faster rate than at any other time after birthChanges in Body Size and Musclefat makeupBy end of first year more than 50 higher fat than at birth By 2 years its 75 greaterIn one study children were observed for 21 months and went for periods of 763 days without growth before randomly adding as much as half an inch in a 24hour period Parents reported their babies hungry and irritant before the day before this event occurred Muscle tissue increases slowly during infancy and will not reach a peak until adolescence In infancy girls are slightly shorter and lighter than boys with a higher fat to muscle ratio These differences persist and are magnified during adolescenceEthnic differences also exist for bodysizeweight normsChanges in body proportionsDifferent parts of the body grow at difference ratesCephalocaudal trend Latin for head to tail During the prenatal period The head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the bodyProximodistal trend growth proceeds literally from near to far From the centre of the body outwards in the prenatal period the head chest and trunk grow first then the arms and legs and finally the feet and handsSkeletal GrowthLarger doesnt necessarily mean more physically matureGeneral Skeletal growthThe best estimate of a childs physical maturity is skeletal age which is a measure of development of the bones of the bodyth The embryonic skeleton is first formed out of soft pliable cartilage In the 6week of pregnancy the cartilage begins to harden into bone a gradual process that continues throughout childhood and adolescence Just before birth special growth centres epiphyses appear at the 2 extreme ends of each of the long bones of the body Cartilage cells continue to be produced at the growth plates of these epiphyses which increase in number throughout childhood and then as growth continues get thinner and disappear After that no further growth in bone length is possibleGirls are more advanced as maturing of skeletal age as well as of organs This allows girls to be less prone to environmental harmful influences Girls have lower developmental problems and child mortality rates Growth of skullAt birth the bones of the skull are separated by 6 gaps or soft plates called fontanels Gaps allow overlapping as head passes through narrow birth canalAs skull bones come into contact with one another they form sutures or seams Sutures disappear completely in adolescence when skull growth ceases Brain DevelopmentDevelopment of neuronsThere are 100200 billion neurons that store and transmit information unlike ther cells neurons arent tightly packed together Between these neurons are tiny gaps or synapses where fibres from different neurons come close together but do not touchNeurons send messages by releasing a chemical neurotransmitters which cross the synapseIn prenatal period neurons produced in embryos primitive neural tube then migrate to other body parts Once in place they differentiate to establish purpose and connectionsSince neurons require space a surprising aspect of brain growth is that as synapses form many surrounding neurons die 2080 depending on brain region During prenatal period neural tube produces far more neurons then brain will ever need Neurons are stimulated by environment and from netlike connectionsAt first stimulation results in massive overabundance of synapses many of which are serving the same functions thereby ensuring the child will acquire the motor cognitive and social skills neededSynaptic pruning a process where neurons that are seldom stimulated lose their synapse This returns neurons not needed at the moment to an uncommitted state so they can support future development about 40 of synapses pruned during childhood and adolescenceAbout half of the brains volume is due to glial cells which are responsible for myelination coating of neuron fibres with insulating fatty sheath myelin which improves efficiency of message transferGlial cells multiply rapidly in prenatal and into second year of life and them slows Brain development can be compared to moulding a living sculpture After neurons and synapses are overproduced cell death and synaptic pruning sculpt away excess building material in order to form mature brain also influenced genetically and environmentally Neurophysiological MethodsMethods that detect changes in electrical activity of cerebral cortexoEEG dynamics of brainwave patternsoERP location of brainwave activityNeuroimaging techniques yield pictures of the brain both require stillness so not good for kidsoPET Xray PhotographyofMRI Injection of radioactive substancesTechnique best used for kids infants and babies is NIRS Near Infrared Spectroscopy in which infrared is beamed at regions of the cerebral cortex to measure blood flow and oxygen metabolism while the child attends a stimulusNIRS is limited to cerebral cortexSometimes not reliable and needs to be combined with other methodsDevelopment of the Cerebral CortexCerebral Cortex surrounds the rest of the brain and resembles half of a shelled walnut Largest structure accounting for 85 of brains weight and containing the greatest number of neurons and synapsesRegions of the CortexThe order in which cortical regions develop correspond to the order in which various capacities emerge in the infant and growing child ex Burst in stauditory and visual areas and mastery of motor skills in 1 year Language active from late infancy to early childhood Frontal lobes have most extended period of developmentPrefrontal Cortex Responsible for thought consciousness inhibition of impulses integration of information use of memory planning reason problem solvingLateralization and Plasticity of the Cerebral CortexContralateral with the exception of the eyes messages of right half of each retina goes to right side of brainLeft verbal abilities spoken and written and positive emotionRight spatial abilities judging distances reading maps and negative emotionsIn left handers this pattern may be reversed or not as lateralizedLeft is better at processing info piece by piece while right is better at processing info by looking at the whole picture holistically
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