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REVIEW - EXAM 2 - Psych 353

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Daniel Nadolny

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MEMORY  Flushbulb memories – people are confident abt it but are not really accurate about it. o Seems like we’re remembering things perfectly but it really is because of the reconstructive process we have (Phaleontoly echos) o We remember incongruent info as long as we have the info or clues around us  We remember things better if it matches our expectancies  When people are told that they’ll interact with the person, they’ll remember things better than telling them to memorize the information – study impression formation goals and encoding  People change the memories of the past in order to be in line with their expectancies; we change the interpretation of events based on our understanding - Fiscchoff, Hindsight bias  Effects of goals in retrieval: if you tell that extraversion is good, they’ll rate themselves as more introverted; goal serving as motivation (Kunda and Fong paper)  Theories about stability and change: if we want to see change, we remember our past selves as different and motivated to see themselves better; if we want stability/ has the theory of stability, it’s vice versa (Wilson and Ross study: in Sept, everybody is excited and happy, in November not everyone is not happy (but when they think back in September, they think that they’re even worse in September than what they are in November cause they wanna see themselves improving)  Mood congruent memory o Memory for things that match the valence of our current mood; when we’re happy, we might remember cake or chocolate easily  Mood Incongruent memory  Mood-dependent memory o What we feel right now matches the situation – when you’re happy and people die, you’ll remember that  Play tetris to stop dramatic memories to having formed Memory 2  Perspective taking o 1 person P is concrete – people focus more on the sensations and perceptions rd o 3 person – we see ourselves in the situation____________/ contextual change  Eyewitness evidence – very bad o Estimator variables – we can’t control o System – we can control o (Loftus and Palmer) You know this o (Lindsay et al.) You know this o Pre line up instructions – we have biased stuff blabla o People can be not quite very confident at all and can be really confident afterwards o Confirmation adds confidence to people’s decisions o Sequential line ups are better than simultaneous line ups HOT CGNITION  OUR DESIRES AND GOALS AFFECTS HOW OUR COGNTIVE PROCESSES ARE  Cognitive dissonance – people are trying to reduce unpleasant feeling  Directional motivation (we care abt conclusions) / non-directional (we don’t care abt the conclusions maybe we just want a specific strategy in order to get there)  We can make introverts think that they’re extraverted when they think that it’s more awesome but we still have constraints  We can only have so many goal active at once – when one goal is active, other goals are less active  Equifinality – multiple paths that go to multiple goals; less likely to enga
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