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PSYCH 338 Textbook Summary [Full Course] File contains concise, easy-to-read summaries of assigned textbook readings. Readings arranged chronologically by when they were assigned for ease of use; organized by chapter for increased readability.


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 338
Professor
Doug Brown

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Chapter 1
- Organizations: Social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort
- The field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work
effectively
- The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt
to change
- Certain behaviours are necessary for survival and adaption, people have to:
o Be motivated to join and remain in the organization
o Carry out their basic work reliably, in terms of productivity, quality and service
o Be willing to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skills; and
o Be flexible and innovative
- The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how to get people to practice effective
teamwork
- Organizational Behaviour: The attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in
organizations
- Those who study organizational behaviour are interested in attitudes how satisfied people are
with their jobs, how committed they feel to the goals of the organization or how supportive they
are of promoting women or minorities into management positions
- Why study organizational behaviour?
o Organizational Behaviour is interesting
o Organizational Behaviour is important
o Organizational Behaviour makes a difference
- Management: The art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others
- The goals of organizational behaviour:
o Predicting organizational behaviour
o Explaining organizational behaviour
Prediction and explanation are not synonymous. Ancient societies were capable
of predicting the regular setting of the sun but were unable to explain where it
went or why it went there
o Managing organizational behaviour

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- Classical Viewpoint: An early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of
labour, intensive coordination and centralized decision making
- Under the classical viewpoint, each department was to tend to its own affairs, with centralized
decision making from upper management providing coordination. To maintain control, the
classical view suggested that managers have fairly few workers, except for lower-level jobs
where machine pacing might substitute for close supervision
- Scientific Management: Frederick Taylor’s system for using research to determine the optimum
degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks
- Rather than informal “rules of thumb” for job design, Taylor’s Scientific Management advocated
the use of careful research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and
standardization. Also, he supported the development of written instructions that clearly defined
work procedures, and he encouraged supervisors to standardize worker’s movements and
breaks for maximum efficiency. Taylor even extended Scientific Management to the supervisor’s
job, advocating “functional foremanship” whereby supervisors would specialize in particular
functions. For example, one might become a specialist in training workers, while another might
fulfill the role of a disciplinarian
- Bureaucracy: Max Webber’s ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command,
detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power and selection and promotion based on
technical competence
- During Weber’s lifetime, managers were certainly in need of advice. In this time of industrial
growth and development, most management was done by intuition, and nepotism and
favouritism were rampant
- According to Webber, a bureaucracy has the following characteristics:
o A strict chain of command in which each member reports to only a single superior
o Criteria for selection and promotion based on impersonal technical skills rather than
nepotism or favouritism
o A set of detailed rules, regulations and procedures ensuring that the job gets done
regardless of who the specific worker is
o The use of strict specialization to match duties with technical competence
o The centralization of power at the top of the organization
- Hawthorn Studies: Research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric near
Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect
productivity and work adjustment. The Human Relations movement generally began with the
Hawthorn Studies

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- The studies were concerned with the impact of fatigue, rest, pauses and lighting on productivity.
However, during the course of the studies, the researchers began to notice the effects of
psychological and social processes on productivity and work adjustment. This impact suggested
that there could be dysfunctional aspects to how work was organized. One obvious sign was
resistance to management through strong informal group mechanisms, such as norms that
limited productivity to less than what management wanted
- Human Relations Movement: A critique of classical management and bureaucracy that
advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented towards employee
needs
- The Human Relations Movement’s critique of the Bureaucracy model addressed several specific
problems:
o Strict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth and achievement. This
can lead to employee alienation from the organization and its clients
o Strong centralization and reliance on formal authority often fail to take advantage of the
creative ideas and knowledge of lower-level members, who are often closer to the
customer
o Strict, impersonal rules lead members to adopt the minimum acceptable level of
performance that the rules specify
o Strong specialization causes employees to lose sight of the overall goals of the
organization
- Contingency Approach: An approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best
way to manage, and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the
situation
- Canadian management theorist Henry Mintzberg discovered that managers play a number of
complex roles:
o Interpersonal Roles:
Figurehead (Symbols of their organization)
Leader (Select, mentor, reward and discipline employees)
Liaison (Maintain horizontal contacts inside and outside the organization)
o Informational Roles:
Monitor (Scan the internal and external environments of the firm to follow
current performance and to keep themselves informed of new ideas and trends)
Disseminator (Send information on both facts and preferences to others)
Spokesperson (Sending messages into the organization’s external environment)
o Decisional Roles:
Entrepreneur (Managers turn problems and opportunities into plans for
improved changes)
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