SMF 204 Textbook Summary [Full Course] File contains concise, easy-to-read summaries of assigned textbook readings. Readings arranged chronologically by when they were assigned for ease of use; organized by chapter for increased readability.
University of Waterloo
Sexuality, Marriage, and Family Studies
Chapter 1Human Sexuality The ways in which we experience and express ourselves as sexual beings Countries with higher gender equality also report the highest levels of sexual satisfaction Three distinct ethical frameworks the ethics of divinity community and autonomyo The ethics of divinity which generally have religious roots are based on a fundamental belief in a natural law of right and wrongo The ethics of community are based on what is perceived as the greater good for the communityo The ethics of autonomy value the rights and freedoms of individuals Phallic Worship Worship of the penis as a symbol of generative power Havelock Ellis was an early contributor to the science of human sexuality he publishes a veritable encyclopedia titled Studies in the Psychology of Sex Sexologist Richard von KrafftEbing described various sexual deviations in his book Psychopathia Sexualis The period of the mid 1960s to the mid 1970s was deemed the sexual revolution The theory is erotic plasticity states that in response to various social and cultural forces people show different levels of sex drive and express their sexual desires in a variety of ways Evolutionary Psychology The theory that dispositions towards behavior patterns that enhance reproductive success may be genetically transferred Psychoanalysis The theory of personality originated by Sigmund Freud which proposes that human behavior represents the outcome of clashing inner forces Unconscious Mind Those parts or contents of the mind that lie outside the of conscious awareness Defense Mechanisms Automatic processes that protect the ego from anxiety by disguising or ejecting unacceptable ideas and urges Repression The automatic ejection of anxietyevoking ideas from consciousness Erogenous Zones Parts of the body including but not limited to the sex organs that are responsive to sexual stimulation Psychosexual development The process by which sexual feelings shift from one erogenous zone to another oral anal phallic latency and genital Fixation In psychoanalytic theory arrested development which included attachment to traits and sexual preferences that are characteristic of an earlier stage of psychosexual development Gender Roles Complex clusters of ways in which males and females are expected to behave within a given culture Behaviorists Learning theorists who argue that a scientific approach to understanding behavior must refer only to observable and measurable behaviors and who emphasize the importance of rewards and punishments in the learning process Socialcognitive Theory A cognitively oriented learning theory in which observational learning values and expectations play a key role in determining behavior Feminist Theory A theory that challenges acceptance of the male as the norm traditional gender roles and male oppression of females Queer Theory A theory that challenges heteronormativity and hetero sexism Chapter 2Empirical Derived from or based on observation and experimentation The scientific method has a number of elements o Formulating a research question o Framing the research question in the form of a hypothesis o Testing the hypothesis o Drawing conclusions Variables commonly used to explain sexual behavior include biological psychological and sociological variables Population A complete group of organisms or events Sample Part of a population Random Sample A sample in which every member of a population has an equal chance of participating Stratified Random Sample A random sample in which known subgroups in a population are represented in proportion to their numbers in a population Volunteer Bias A slanting of research data that is caused by the characteristics of individuals who volunteer to participate such as willingness to discuss intimate behavior Case Study A carefully drawn indepth biography of an individual or a small group on individuals that may be obtained through interviews questionnaires and historical records Survey A detailed study of a sample obtained by means such as interviews and questionnaires Reliability The consistency or accuracy of a measure Incidence A measure of the occurrence or the degree of occurrence of an event Validity With respect to tests the degree to which the particular test measures the construct or traits that it purports to measure Kinseys sex surveys suffered from gross sampling biases NHSLS The National Health and Social Life Survey Social Desirability A response bias to a questionnaire or interview in which the person provides a socially acceptable response Naturalistic Observation A method in which organisms are observed in their natural environments Ethnographic Observation Data concerning sexual behaviors and customs that occur among various ethnic groups Participant Observation A method in which observers interact with the people they study as they collect data Correlation A statistical measure of the relationship between two variables