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Bio361-membrane potential + graded potential

2 Pages

Course Code
BIOL 361

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Membrane Transportcellular processability to move molec across charge diff immed adj to the memcytoplasmextracell uidinsulatormembring nutrients across pmexpel end pdtshormonesnonconducting materialif thin enoughcharges can still interactlipid synthesizedprocessedpackaged secretedionscontrol ionicosmotic propbilayermembrane potentialonly occur across small distancedun affect transporterkinetic propenzymesKmJmaxmaximal v3classesdirection of ions in the bulk phaseonly occurs in the area immed adj to the memtransportnature of carriers and role of E int he processpassive Goldmaneqused to calculate the rmp based on the permeability of KNadiffusionfacilitated diffusionactive transport 1passive hydrophobicityability Clrepresents the sum of the equilm potentials for all the relevant ions w of a moleculesteroid hormone to dissolve into lipid bilayerfreely crossnet a weighting factor that takes into account the relative permeabilities if the movemtinuxefux depends on the gradienthigh to low steeper ionsinuence of each ion over the overall mem poten is proportional to its gradient greater rate of movemt dun require specic transportersE permeabilityKplays the major role in establishing mpmore permeableNa2facilitatedhydrophilic molecrequire a protein to carry molecion channels K ATPaseestablish gradient to ultimately establish the mem potenw the porinspermeasesion channelprotein form poresspecic ions may pass help of selective permeabilitymaintain rmpused by the cell to compensate when channel is openspecicitydue to the selectivity lera structural for the leakage of NaKionsouabaindisturbs NaKATPasedecay poten component of the channelopened in response to cellular condtnliganddiff of the cell0mVchnge in ion permeability chnge in mem potengated channelopened when specic regulatory molec are 90mVEk70mVrmp58mVENa depolarizationreduction in the thereCa2channel release Ca2 when inositol triphosphate IP3 is presentmembrane potentialmore positiveexinward Namovemthyperpolarizationvoltagegated channelopenedclosed in response to mem potentialmuscleloss of charges from the interior of the cellmore negativeexoutward KneuronsK channels open when mem depolarizesmechanogated movemt due to its electrical gradientelectrical gradientthe difference in channelregulated by interactions w subcellular proteins that make up the electrical charge valence across the membraneelectrochemical gradientcytoskeletonchnge in cell shapeswellingchnge arrangement of the consist of two parts the electrical poten and a difference in the chemcytoskeleton mechanogated channel opencloseporinslarge across a membranechannelssimto ion channelsbut allow larger molec in the outer mem of mitochondriatransfer of low molecular weigh molec from cytoplasm to Neurons Graded potentialmotor neurontype of neuron that sends signals mitochondria aquaporinsH2Ochannelseach can transport 3B H20 molecfrom the CNS to skeletal musclecontrol animal movemt4 zones1dendritessecaquaglyceroporins transport nonH2O molecglyceroltransport gasescell bodysomasignal receptiondendritessense incoming chem signals permeasesfunction like an enzymebinds substratechnge conformation convert signals to electrical signal in the form of a chnge in the mem potenrelease substrate to the other sideglucosepass from high to lowthru transmit the signal to the cell body cell bodysynthesizedegrade proteins glucose permeaseunlike porinsion channelspermeases can be saturated provide E maintain structurefunction of neurondetect incoming signals bc w substratehigh transport ptocess depends on how quickly the contains receptors2axon hillock signal integration locatedjunction of cell permease can carry its substrate across the mem 3active transportagainst bodyaxonif electrical signal is large enoughaction potential gradientprimarycarrier protein uses an exergonic rxn to provide E to initiatedoccurs in the axon3axonsignal conduction1 neuron1axon transport a molecuse hydrolysis of ATP for E3general class of ATP several collateralsmyelin sheathwraps around the vertebrate motor dependent transportersPtype ATPaseuse ATP hydrolysis to pump specic neuronshelp conducting impulse to the axon terminal 4axon terminalsignal ions across mem ex NaK ATPase Inside of the cellhas a low Nahigh transmission to target cellsswelling end forms synapse w target skeletal KCa2 ATPaseFVtype ATPaseuse E to pump HFtype in muscle cell transduce electrical signal to chemical signal in the form of a mitochondrialoperates in reverse using H movemt down electrochemical chemical neurotransmitterneurotransmitterdiffuse across synapsebinds to gradients to make E for ATP hydrolysisVtype ATPasealows cellsreceptors on muscle cell meminitiate a signal in the muscle cellcause organelles to extrude H to acidify a compartmentlumen of lysosomecontractionexcitable cellsrapidly alter mem poten in response to an inside of stomachABC transporterscarry large molecused t
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