CLST 232 Final: CLST 232 FINAL
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Department
Classical Studies
Course
CLST 232
Professor
Huemoeller
Semester
Winter

Description
ID TERMS: 
 
 Augustus: 27-14 BCE: First real Emperor on rome. Established his rule as a peacetime rule through two settlements. In the first he hands back the power to the senate and people “restoring the republic” and they nominate him as consul for 10 years, giving him Augustus title meaning ‘revered one’, now that republic model is restored magistracies gain back power, however it is clear republic isn't fully in power because he is consul. Second settlement he resigns and lays down power, again he is given new ones. Gets powers ASSOCIATED with consulship ie. imperium, Maius meaning greater/ Also tribunate powers, sacresaint, pontifex maximus, father of the country Pater Patriae. He now has political authority, religious authority, familial authority. Reforms include reducing power of the army and the senate, reorganizes the provinces into senatorial and imperial, brings order to the city through prefects, police force called vigiles, develops infrastructure. Focus on family affairs, penalizes unmarried and adultery, all aimed at stability. On his death he had a lot of power to transfer, not just Maius Imperium, Tribunation, Pontifex Maximus and Pater Patriae, but also the household staff and the veterans, who's loyalty was important. For a successor he marries his daughter Julia multiple times to produce an heir. Marcellus, Agrippa and Gaius and Lucius all die, only Tiberius is left, but he was not first choice. Famous for transforming the city of rome, from brick to marble. ▯ Ara Pacis: 9 BCE He used art as propaganda and to put focus on the imperial family to promote the idea of a dynasty and they they were of higher status. Their images were everywhere, focus on family values, peace, fertility. Monumental altar was a new form of religious art, most altars are normal sized. Engraved marble panels show elaborate vegetal designs, emphasizing fertility and prosperity. A relief shows personified Rome feeding romulus and Remus. Processional friezes have a documentary element to them, as if this was a snapshot of something that could have occured. Shows necessary accoutrements for sacrifice, points to his religious authority. Members of imperial family shown in portrait, they are the pious sacred leaders of Roman religion, share his authority and right to rule, a dynasty is established with the children. Germanicus is shown as a child. Such an expensive piece of imperial art is new and signifies his move to making the family as a whole important. 
 Imperial cult: Starting with Julius Caesar when he had a temple set up in the last year of his rule that was authorized by the senate. but mostly Augustus, once an Emperor dies they are deified by their successor and worshipped. ‘Son of a god’ was one of the many divine associations Octavian assumed for himself, and he took the position of Pontifex maximus which placed him as an intermediary between the gods and people, every emperor afterwards took on this role. Identified the emperors and some members of the family as divine under the roman state. This cult spread through the empire and we see diversity in how it was practiced in each province. Augustus started this similar cult like devotion to himself with some caution, said they should only worship Roma AND Augustus, as a pair, to discourage the development of a personal cult. But he did set these cults in places among the empire where he wanted to foster loyalty. This is a way augustus used religion to strengthen his own position, people from different classes were called to participate, and supported the formation of a group of freedmen who would maintain the cult of his Genius, they were called Augustales, and higher class men formed a council to celebrate the cult. The cult cut across all varied beliefs and practices, was one of the strongest unifying forces in the empire. The cult evolved from hellenistic greek practices, such as alexander commanding cults with temples altars, ect to show signs of their power. Apparently Jews weren't forced to participate in the imperial cult. 
 Augustus of Prima Porta (statue): 20 BCE Standing statue of augustus, larger than life. In pose of address, an imposing form in contrapposto, idealized youthful male form. Art based on classical greek art work from 5th cent Golden age of Athenian art. Based on statue called the Page 1 of 19 Doryphoros (spear barer). This art calls back to a time of a powerful city, Rome is already known for appropriating greek art. This also calls to mind his military accolades with the cuirass. The baby cupid points to his relation to venus, and also Aeneas and the foundation of Rome and another connection to Greece. The dolphin symbolizes his military victory in the naval battle of Actium. The breast plate paints a scene of him recovering the military standards lost at the battle of Carhae by Crassus. He did however get these back through diplomatic action not military. He is surrounded by peaceful divinity, paints image of a golden age, he has brought back peace and order. ▯ Res Gestae: Augustus’ own telling of his accomplishments, know about them from the massive inscriptions erected all over the empire after his death, well preserved in turkey temple to Augustus. Shows his augustan propaganda, how he presented his role in the state. Legal element is highlighted, talks about official elections given by the senate and people, everything he is doing is to service the people which distinguishes himself from Caesar, who took on his own accord. Section of his Res Gustae highlights his building scheme of the city of Rome. Rebuilt temples, senate house, theatre, aqueducts. 
 The Julio Claudians: known for representing decadence, violence, sex, intrigue, they come down to us this way because of hostile sources (suetonius wrote about peoples moral character like a gossip columnist, and senators who weren't happy with the little bit of power they had left after the praetorian guard took it away and freedmen rose in importance, people have personal vendettas too) Also the problem of succession was never worked out, based on birth was hard with high mortality rate, there was a lot of jockeying for the next spot in the imperial household, dynastic marriages, adoption, assassination, a lot of manipulation of the family tree. They are in power for 54 years after the death of Augustus, and during their rule we see different ways of dealing with the army. There is Tiberius, Gaius (Caligula), Claudius, Nero. ▯ Tiberius: 14-37 AD: Takes the office when augustus had died and had already co-ruled with him for a while, was a competent leader but not popular, an older grimm figure forced into empire. He had spent many years as a successful military commander. Not charismatic, didn't really want to rule, also his personality was suspicious, secretive, and aggravated his sense of isolation during his rule. Senate tried to give him the position of emperor and he said no, so they offered him aspects of the job and he agreed, eventually reluctantly taking on the whole position. His position with the senate is bad and treason trials grow under his rule, for conspiracy against the princeps life, libel and slander. His distrust of the senate and military background led him to reply on the Praetorian guard. He moves to capri during his rule and leaves the empire in others hands and never returned back for rome, not even for his mothers funeral. He never attended public spectacles. Two major threats plague his rule: Germanicus, and Sejanus. Sejanus is the Praetorian prefect He was the head guard, an equestrian who had become more powerful than senators and consuls, who hated them. He stirred up a revolt against Tiberius while he was in capri, He is executed thanks to Tiberius’s wife. He looked at Sejanus as an individual case and not a flaw with the system of Praetorian guard. Most of his energies went toward military and admin matters. Tiberius manages to die naturally.▯ Germanicus: Threat to Tiberius, seemed like he was going to be the successor of Tiberius but he was also more popular, younger, athletic, handsome, had 6 possible successors. Was a military commander, had the loyalty of the legions, retrieved legionary standards that were stolen from Germany. He was sent to go on the offensive along the Rhine to try and establish a new border in 14 CE, failed to do so. He got a triumph in Rome, and the was sent east with Maius imperium (lesser than tiberius’s) to go fight the parthians who's king had just expelled the roman nominee from the throne of Armenia. Tiberius felt threatened by him and Germanicus dies of mysterious circumstances in 19 CE. His lineage does stay important as his son is Caligula. 
 Page 2 of 19 Praetorian guard: which is a military institution developed with the empire as a personal body guard for Emperor stationed within rome. A very big threat because an army had never been stationed within the city before. They were hated by senators and consul because of the extreme power they gained. The revolt led by prefect Sejanus shows the rising power of this particular group even by the time of the second emperor, they soon become so powerful they basically chose emperors and murder ones they don't like, as they did with Caligula. ▯ Caligula: 37-41: Chosen by Tiberius as his successor, was the son of Germanicus and the grandnephew of tiberius. Nickname caligula comes from the mini military boots he worse as a toddler when he lived on camps with his parents. He was favoured pick of the praetorian guard. People were excited to have a young, handsome, energetic ruler for a change. He tried to get rid of the secrecy of Tiberius’s reign by publishing the budget, appearing at many public events, restoring senatorial prestige. Within a year he fell ill with some sort of brain fever and turned out to be crazy, as his erratic behaviour escelated. He thought he was a living god which was not acceptable at this point in the empire, he also slept with his sisters. Fought with the senate and ruled more autocratically. He planned a consulship for his favourite racehorce. Was murdered by the praetorian guard, his assassination is different, he is killed in private, in a tunnel by his household staff. There is a moment after his assassination where people think maybe we shouldn't continue the empire, Senate even meets to discuss returning to a republic. The praetorian guard doesnt want their power taken away, as they are directly tied to the emperor, so they take matters into their own hands. ▯ Claudius: 41-56 AD: The praetorian guard storms the imperial household and finds Claudius hiding behind a curtain and they name him emperor on the spot. This is the first time the army has created an emperor, and will now happen frequently. Claudius was the uncle of Caligula. He was a scholar, wrote poetry, wasn't extravagant like Caligula. He was an unimposing figure with a limp and a stutter which is why he was able to escape notice as a threat in the house. He reduced the reliance on the Praetorian guard, took his imperial duties seriously and treated the senate with respect. He was always involved in military and admin affairs. He was a bright competent leader for most of his reign, he helps the economy and invades Britain, much more active military wise compared to the last two, shared augustus’ concern with expanding the empire, annexed mauretania as a provence and thrace. He was alert to the grain supply and made sure merchants could import in the winter. His tone appears fussy and self involved in documents. However he is to a good husband or slave owner and the household falls into disarray, controlled by his wives and freedmen. His niece Agrippina the younger schemed to marry him in order to secure Neros succession. This makes him a laughing stock to historians. He was murdered by his wife Agrippina who wanted Nero to take the throne. 
 Nero: 56-69 AD: Was only 17 years old when he came to power, a man of culture into threatre, drama and gladiatorial games and less interested in government and military. Initially popular, but becomes crazy later and gets hateful criticism which shadows most of his rule. Is he a product of his environment or did the position go to his head? He killed his wife and his brother. His mother was too powerful and tried to exercise power through him, he tires of her control so he tries to arrange her death. Attempted to sink her boat but it she didn't drown so he had her beaten to death on the shore, famously looks at her naked dead body in rome and says “she looks pretty good”. His unlimited spending and protracted military actions caused him to devalue coinage and revive laws of treason. Nero alienated many including the soldiers (he never visited the troops), praetorian guard, senators, a revolt is started in his rule by Vindex the governor of Gaul (unsuccessful). Nero only visited greece in his 14 years, the empire was still centred in italy. The great fire of Rome happens during his rule and he blames it on the Christians, also takes the chance to take over public land and build his great golden home, builds a lake. Senate declared nero a public enemy and names Galba emperor, Nero kills himself in despair. ▯ Page 3 of 19 Year of 4 Emperors (69): Civil war breaks out after Neros reign and four different emperors are proclaimed by senate and army around the empire. Vindex starts the revolt in Gallia in 67. Though he didn't have much strength it was this that precipitated Nero’s downfall. The following civil war took 18 months and was devastating for italy. The senate proclaimed the governor of spain as next Emperor. Two of the four contenders were declared emperor by troops outside of rome, the fourth by the praetorian guard. This year is representative of a trend already been tracing with the growing power of the guard and now we see provincial governors have also increased in power. Neros neglect had opened up the way for a commander and his troops to grab power. All four of the claimants to throne are senior experienced senators, and there is never a question if they will return to a republican structure so though it is busy it is not necessarily chaotic, the political system is still stable. Eventually Vespasians troops declared him emperor in 69 Judea, and he was able to defeat the current emperor’s forces. The civil war destroyed everything in its path, was expensive, diverted manpower from important points, showed the disunity of the empire and of the troops in particular. 
 Vestal virgin: 6 priestesses that were to preform the rights of Vesta, goddess of the Hearth, who manifested in an actual flame that was tended to. Believe this cult was started by the Roman king Numa Pomilius. Her shrine was near the Regia in the Forum Romanum. They had to defend the sacred flame, and its extinction would endanger the city itself. This shows how deeply entrenched roman religion was into the city, the fact this very fire represented its wellbeing, it was important to tend to the sacred cult. Christianity spread and eventually the emperor Theodosius ended the cult practice of many divinities including the cult of Vesta. many could see this representing the fall of an empire, especially if you read it as being deeply tied to the religion and we see the religion being squashed, the death of the flame really did bring about the end of the roman empire. The vestal virgins are also important because it shows one of the important roles women played in Roman religion, one of the important branches of the empire that women actually were allowed to play an important role in. ▯ Vespasian: Comes out on top of the civil war of 69, he is declared emperor by his armies in the East and Judea follows, where he gathered up enough power while quelling the revolt. For the third time the senate puts together the a bill, this one called the Lex De Imperio Vespasiani which lists his powers bestowed by the senate, and this starts the flavian dynasty. He had two adult sons which meant good things for succession. Titus was already a proven administrator and general. Vespasian doesnt marry again in order to avoid more problems with succession. He played a major part in the jewish revolt, was able to stabilize. This was Romes first dynasty switch and their military achievements were what they based the validity of their accession to throne on. He has a large building programme, the Coliseum, Temple of Peace, Forum of Vespasian, he is giving back to the people of Rome and painting himself as a military genius and peacetime administrator, two conflicting messages. He is often referred to as the new augustus. He carefully managed his succession, public benefaction, paid attention to people senate and army, was an administrator and a general. He was an unpretentious man from a respectable family. His strength was military acumen, shown in germany britian and Judea. They new it was important to have a fresh start after the disaster nero caused by draining the treasury through his extravagance, the civil war and the following revolts. He was thought of highly, was very accessible, hardworking, modest. and peace was restored even though taxes were raised to compensate for nero
 Lex de imperio Vespasiani 70 AD: Law on Vespasian’s Imperium, bill made by the senate. This document is important in telling us what the position of emperor meant at this point. The assembly voted on it, meaning republican institutions are functioning still and given power. The content has become traditional, a set array of powers handed down with no sign of innovation. He is able to speak on behalf of the divine, human, public, private. Caligula and Nero aren't Page 4 of 19 addressed, which shows us who we are choosing to pretend not to remember, they do list the approved emperors. The powers listed are constitutional, bestowed by the senate, but responsibilities are so broad they verge on not even being particular powers at all. The senate is still trying to assert the importance of their role here, putting themselves within the document assuring their continued existence even if their powers are empty. Makes it clear the emperors authority was no longer centred on himself or his family , but clearly defined powers and prerogatives, justifying them by specific imperial precedent. This is one of the earliest signs of the principates institutionalization, shows continued significance placed on the governmental processes and the popular support for the princeps. They also established greater reliance on the senate and equites rather than freedman which a lot of the claudians relied on. 
 Colosseum: Built under Vespasian on the land previously confiscated by Nero to build his artificial lake. This was showing the people that in contrast to the previous dynasty, they give to the people not take away. Also called the Flavian Ampitheatre. built on the land Nero had used for his artificial lake, he had taken land away now they were giving it back to the public. The name comes from the 120 ft tall statue of nero that the flavians modified to look like the sun god sol. Not a new form of building, but massive in size, bigger than any other. Innovative in the way the facade was articulated and the engineering and proportions. Amphitheatres show hunting spectacles, gladiatorial battles, spectacular executions, Flavian's just waged successful military campaign and brought back slaves, this shows military success translated into architecture. Built out of war booty according to inscription. This was a cautious building, compared to Nero’s innovation. the innovated exterior arches gave access to different routes through the seating, created a controlled entry/exit system still used today. Held many blood sports romans liked ie. men against man, beast against man or each other, gladiatorial fights. The spectacles were a way to control and manipulate the people, demonizing the gladiators and victims strengthened the unity of the spectators. Every spectacle day included public prayer and homage to emperor, ties in religion and empire. 
 Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius: One of the two major disasters Trajan had to deal with in his short reign. Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried with ash by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, leaving the city greatly preserved and a treasure trove of information on the roman empire. We have lots of surviving Papyri thanks to the erruption, which can give us insight into the documentary literature field of study. There is also a lot of graffiti remaining from pompeii, have casts of bodies sitting praying as they died and were immediately covered over in ash. We can look at what this graffiti means, who wrote it and what class we might be gaining an insight into, and what this might mean to historians. Early Art historians didn't think the graffiti was useful simply because it didn't give us an insight into the upper class, and “.we may assume that the writers were as little representative of the best elements of society as are the tourists who scratch or carve their names upon ancient monuments today” But thats classist bs. We can learn about the regular people. 
 Sack of Jerusalem: The end of the quell of the jewish revolt. The revolt had been built up to with a series of minor revolts. this one happened because the governor was cruel to subjects, heavily taxed and mismanaged by the romans, the powerful poorer population revolted. Also for religious reasons. The revolt is managed by Titus after Vespasian leaves for rome, and it is Titus who carries out the Siege of Jerusalem and destruction of the temple in 70 AD. All the booty taken from this war is put into important monuments in the city, the Arch of titus shows a scene of triumph and soldiers carrying booty through another triumphal arch. Again establishing their right to rule through military successes. Inscription on the Coliseum shows it was built from the spoils of the jewish revolt. They are also showing how they can benefit the people through their military successes and in a way that Nero neglected to. Forum of Vespasian and temple of peace built demonstrating spoils and celebrating peace that comes from conquering. The first Page 5 of 19 jewish revolt was a struggle against the romans conducted as guerrilla warfare, To the romans the destruction of the temple signalled the end of the revolt, but some resistance held out a few years longer. After the revolt Jews were prohibited from proselytizing to gain new converts. ▯ Domitian: 81-96 AD: The younger son of Vespasian, power passed smoothly to him after his brother died. Wasn’t a great general like his father or brother, never in Judea for the revolt and didn't have any military experience. He wasn't promoted to be emperor like Titus had been taking position of co- consul. No one thought domitian would last long. Never had a good working relationship with the senate, but this contrast with his devotion to the army and concern for people of Rome and provinces. He was the first emperor since claudius to personally go on campaign, reasserting them military character of their dynasty His reign started off normal with more building projects like the Arch of Titus in remembrance of his brother, intensifying the building and reconstruction programs started by his father. He soon gets very paranoid and over confident in his authority. Demands to be known as god and master, puts to death senators based on accusations. This leads to his assassination. Romes people were apparently not stirred by his assassination. Nerva made a point of putting to death his assassins, and punished them in a public display, hinting that maybe he wasn't completely hated. 
 The Antonines: Everyone from Nerva to Commodus. Known as the hey-day of the roman empire, when everything is going swell. These are the five good emperors. Gibbons calls it the happiest and most prosperous time. All emperors in this period made a point of deferring to their peers, responsible administration was linked with peace and prosperity. They aimed at better lives of the lower class, lots of child support schemes set up under them, the judicial system was standardized under them. There were no christian persecutions compared to the third cent and nerd’s reign, and they had the good fortune to be spared lengthly warfare with external forces. However poverty and deprivation remained widespread. ▯ Trajan: 98-117: Often called one of the best Roman emperors. One of the few emperors who successfully combined the goodwill of the army and the harmony of the senate. He is responsible for expanding the empire significantly. He comes down in tradition as Optimus Princeps on coins and inscriptions. He takes the province of Dacia in a series of wars after a client king had rebelled. He responded more firmly a second time and he destroyed them and turned them into a province. Had a column erected to celebrate his wars in Dacia. He does the same thing in Arabia when a client king dies and creates a province out of it, this action brings the size of the Roman empire to its greatest extent it ever had been and ever will be. The spoils of war bring in 225 tons of gold, 500 tons of silver 50,000 slaves, they financed the forum of Trajan. He put a lot into civil matters, established some of the last veteran colonies. He employed people to oversee cities and whole regions for short periods, these caretakers were called curatores, one of them was Pliny the younger who worked in Bithynia. He is responsible for numerous public works and roads in italy and the provinces. His final act was to adopt Hadrian as heir. ▯ Hadrian: 117-138 CE: Talked about as someone who represents this coalescing of empire into one state after a period of expansion under Trajan. Was a great traveller and figure of culture, a poet, painter. Spent most of his reign travelling around the empire, doesnt stay within the city of Rome. Shows us that Rome is no longer centred around the city but a consolidated and intertwined empire. He was a painter, designed buildings, wrote poetry and his speeches, all only possible because of the peaceful times. Hadrian did not originally come from Italy but the province of Spain, and he barely spends any time in the capital and this isn't perceived as a problem, the provinces are now wholly part of Rome and considered just as important as Italy, and he is making himself accessible to all not just italy. Even though he renounced expansion he still took interest in military matters, the second and third Jewish revolts marked the beginning and end of his Rule. He represents the coalescing of empire into one state. He Page 6 of 19 consulted senatorial and equestrian advisors and encouraged people to participate in administration. He supported the proliferation of art and culture. He was also good at setting up future succession, he adopted Antoninus Pius and had him adopt two men, preparing two generations. 
 Marcus Aurelius: 161-180: Another smooth power transfer from Antoninus Pius. Co-ruled with Lucius Verus for the first 7 years, his only different distinction was of Ponitfex Maximus giving him more religious authority, other than this they were equal. First equal co-rulers, they divided up territory, Marcus had the west and dealt with the wars along the Danube. This split mirrors the east west split of Antony and Octavian. There are a lot of invasions along the north of the Danube from germanic tribes, the Marcomannic wars carry on to the end of Marcus Aurelius’ death. Verus’ troops coming back from the east brought over the Antonine Plague Column to him is erected after his death. He is a philosopher and we have his surviving meditations. He was a forward thinker in terms of how government should work. The plague also happens during his rule. Marcus Aurelius married Antoninus’ daughter Faustina the younger and they had as many as 15 children, shows importance stll attached to the family. His fame however does not come from his military victories but his focus on Rome’s beneficial ideology. Only one little problem arose, general Cassius in the east told his troops marcus was dead and he would take his place, Ruled in the east for four months but was killed by a subordinate. His only son to survive childhood was Commodus. They ruled as co-Augustu for four years before Aurelius died. 
 Commodus: 180-192: Evil Emperor, an example as to why natural succession isn't always the best. When you adopt someone you can pick who is the best fit for rule, they are not necessarily born in the purple, which impacts their personality. Cassius Dio says he wasn't naturally wicked but he was guileless and a coward and from his surrounding environment he lured how to be lustful and cruel. In his early reign he decides to stop the wars his father had been pursuing and his prospectives to make a new province of marcomannia, and goes back to Rome. He consolidates along the border, not a popular move and might have led to insecurity for him as people weren’t following him like his father. He erected the column of Marcus Aurelius to celebrate the wars end and Rome’s invincibility. His council of advisors dealt with most of the administration and the praetorian guards had great power under his rule. He descends into megalomania, thinks he's hercules, renames all of Rome, the months, the army, the people after himself. He behaves erratically towards senate. Sister almost successfully carries out a conspiracy against him. There is a massive fire burning down important buildings and it is now he steps over the mark and labels himself new founder of Rome and initiates 14 days of gladiatorial shows. His major concerns were his own personal gratification and that of the people. He restructured grain imports. He is killed in a bathtub 192 in a palace conspiracy, memory is damned. the following chaos stemmed from Romes lack of constitutional means to expel bad emperors and manage orderly succession. 
 Pontifex Maximus: Head priest of Roman religion 
 Antonine plague: 166 CE, brought back by the soldiers from the Parthian war, became a 25 year problem during Marcus Aurelius’ rule, killed around 8 percent of the population and weakened the military strength and morale of the empire. Some even point to this being the start of the fall of the empire and the rise of christianity, in a period with so much death and uncertainty people wanted a promised afterlife and chance at salvation. Even hit the rural areas. This disease demoralized the military and urban populations, who were the people who undertook defence, commerce, administration, and this weakened the empire. 
 Year of 5 Emperors: 193 AD: They didn't have a successor ready after his assassination so the Praetorian guard chose Pertanax like they did Claudius, he didn't want to be controlled by them however so they killed him. Next they auctioned off the place of Emperor outside the Page 7 of 19 praetorian camp, a really weird event that shows us how the office of emperor had changed. They were looking for the biggest donative, the idea that the position of emperor could be purchased. The army also shows their power and ability to make an emperor, three provincial revolts in Britannia, Danube, Syria each have emperor claimants. The one to make it out on top is Septimius Severus. ▯ Septimius Severus: 193-211 CE: His main focus for maintaining power is the provincial legions ,he is the first military dynasty. One of Rome’s great reforming emperors. He was successful because he was a good political thinker and strategist, triumphed over other emperors because he was closest to Rome and could immediately march on them. He balanced the different bases of power well, Senate, Praetorian, Imperial household, people of Rome. Rose up ranks under Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Comes from north Africa, another sign that the empire wasn't centred around Rome anymore. He told people he was fighting a war against Parthia not civil war. does away with the praetorian guard and replaced them with legionaries, manages image and ties in his dynasty when he adopts himself back to Marcus Aurelius and un-damns Commodus, deifies Pertanax, makes transition look smooth. He increases the size of the cities Vigiles (watchmen). He divided Syria into two smaller provinces to reduce the number of troops under a single general. He also annexed northern mesopotamia as a province. His glorious triumphs celebrated on the arch of Septimius Severus. Main focus is on Army, grants them wives which wasn't allowed before. He in contrasted treated the senate roughly, lots of treason trials and reduced the number of admin positions open to them, giving other ones to the Equites. He left a surplus in the treasury. Had two sons for succession. As he died he passed the rule onto both of them, told them to “be harmonious, enrich the soldiers, scold all other men.” they don't listen tho. The Severan dynasty is known as a renaissance in the city of rome and some provinces. ▯ Caracalla 211-217 CE: Less charismatic and more brutal than his father. He did follow his fathers concern for military by raising legionary pay. Kills Geta in his mothers arms once they weren't getting along (had already divided rule into two zones). Kills around 12,000 people eliminating anyone on Getas side. Tries to appeal to the people against his fathers wishes, gives everyone in the empire citizenship as a gift in the constitute Antoniniana 212. The borders were increasingly under attack, spent a lot of the principate on campaign. People still don't like him, also long unfavourable war in the desert loses armies favour, and officers feared his erratic personality. He is killed by an assassin while he pees in Carrhae. 
 Constitutio Antoniniana: The edict issued in 212 under Caracalla that declared all free men in the Roman empire were to get Roman citizenship. One account says he did this to gain revenue, and and other motives are suspected, but it didn't end up making money from it. The original concept of citizenship was tied to rights, duties and privileges. You could vote in elections but this went out by Tiberius’s time, they were liable for taxes, and had to serve their local communities. They did get the privilege of joining a legion, and had greatest social and political mobility. The early principate might have been a good time to be a citizen but it lost its allure by the end go the 2nd cent. The privileges of citizenship eroded with the enlistment of non citizens, and at the lowest levels of Roman society differences in status were meaningless if you had no possessions or education, your status as citizen or slave made little difference in court, probably not preoccupied with their legal status. This is the background we must consider with Caracallas grant of citizenship, what functional and ideological difference did it make? What constituted being Roman 
 Elagabalus: 218-222: After Macrinus’ short rule, replaced him when he is presented to the senate. His advancement was due to his grandmother, He is completely uninterested in governing. His name comes from the god he worshipped as hereditary priest, Elah-Gabal, the sun god from Syria who is a ‘betel’ or black sacred stone. He heavily promotes the religion even Page 8 of 19 though romans felt antagonized by its rituals, marries a vestal virgin to the rock. He is insane but the empire continues to be administered by a competent staff. Maybe the emperor isn't that important of a position anymore. He is eventually killed once his aunt presents his cousin as a successor and bribes the praetorian guard to killed Elagabalus and his mother. One of the strangest rules rome ever experienced. ▯ 3rd Century Crisis: Causes of the third century crisis is Rise of soldiery, constant turnover of emperors, breakaway empires (General Postumus controlled gaul, spain, Britain as a usurper. collected tax and levied soldiers), barbarian invasions by Germanic and other tribes, economic crisis (the debasement of coinage), depopulation due to plague. This was a period of rapid and violent political change, with 18 emperors taking power, even more illegitimate ones. The senate had little power, and all the rulers stressed continuity of the past and promise for a bright future. Seems to have been a great resistance to innovation, and persecutions against the christians empire wide by Decius and Valerian. Emperors focused more on asserting their supremacy over rivals than addressing systematically the problems that the empire faced on its borders. The problem of succession was still prevalent and multiple people claimed succession at each time. It was a perfect storm of problems creating internal and external insecurity. The effects of this are soldiery replacing traditional nobility, widespread impoverishment, disaffection with the Roman state, all of these in turn helped facilitate the growth of christianity. with a religion so tied into every aspect of the state when the state is failing it reads as the religion failing them, Christianity offered a brighter alternative, a chance at a better life after this one, also get a personal relationship with the god. ▯ Mithraism: Another active religion in the Roman state. Considered one of the mystery religions alongside the cult of Isis. It is worshipping the persian god Mithras, depicted as a young athletic fit man. Religion developed in the first cent CE and continued on until the 4th. Whole mythology behind it is Mithras slaying a bull, the most depicted image in the religion. He is shown looking away from the slaying, assisted by a scorpion and a dog, often the sun is watching this. Supposedly Mithras is going to share the meat with the sun god, a ritual surrounding rebirth and fertility. Eastern origin represented in clothes. Worshipped in a Mithriaum temple through feasting, always lots of utensils found. You had to be initiated into it. proceeded through stages, secret, more revealed as you rise. Was popular with soldiers and young men, fraternity like. Women not allowed 
 Diocletian 284-305: Considered another Augustus like Vespasian, was crafty with admin and reform. He had no dynastic claims to power and he might have been a freedman or a son of one. He was talented and ambitious, served in the military and acted as commander of the protectores. His reign was distinguished by imperial stability. Reorganized everything by taking larger units of territory or army and breaking them into smaller units so no one could get enough force to rise up and revolt. Also broke the connection between administrative and military positions, which did become problematic. Started the tetrarchy, rule of 4 with two Augustus (Senior) and Caesar (junior) to govern east and west. They were linked by marriage to their respective augustus. Was supposed to set up as a succession with Caesar replacing Augusti. He is the first to retire and see a peaceful succession in his lifetime. His system produced great results, was able to suppress the gallic insurrection and other tribes also gained to new territory. One of his missteps was the persecution of small religious groups, however he was very conservative and had no tolerance for these new cults, ordered soldiers to destroy church of Nicomedia. Problems arise when it isn't their natural sons who succeed them. Constantinus becomes augustus when Maximian steps down with Diocletian and he brings his natural son Constantine up north to fight with him, and when Constantinus dies the army declares Constantine the emperor, which isn't who its supposed to be next in line. Shit starts to crumble already. As we see old habits of dynasticim and infighting quickly reappear and prevail over this Page 9 of 19 system. 
 Pliny: 1-2nd cent, from him we have lots of preserved letters which we can study and learn about Roman history. Literary letters aren't really letters but have diverse content like politics, philosophy, poetry. He was a lawyer and orator, from well respected family. He has 247 letters in 10 books, many are to Trajan while he was a governor in Bithinya, his goal was to stabilize things in the province. We wonder how genuine Pliny is in these letters, and if it is Trajan writing back or one of his higher up men. His letter to Trajan regarding the christians is a valuable
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