Learning Goals – Waves 3
1. Describe the processes responsible for a storm surge.
2 things are forces for a storm surge: a hurricane and a high velocity wind. The wind
is a processes that is unrelated to the hurricane; forms a mound behind the
hurricane. A hurricane will form a mound of low pressure directly below the eye of
the hurricane. In reality, there is only one mound combining the two processes. The
rotation of the hurricane and the motion of the hurricane will determine the part of
the coastline that will be impacted the hardest (in the northern hemisphere, this is
2. Identify where the maximum surge will occur during a hurricane.
In the Northern Hemisphere, the place of maximum surge will be on the right hand
side of the hurricane. Vice Versa for the Southern Hemisphere. This depends on the
rotation and the motion of the hurricane as it is approaching land. On side has winds
spinning into land, and the other sides has winds that are spinning away from the
3. Determine how two waves will interact; Explain constructive and destructive
When waves of different amplitudes and wavelengths meet, they will interact in a
way that creates a complex and random wave. When two wave crests interact with
each other, their crests will line up to create a bigger, more powerful wave. This is
called constructive interference. When a crest lines up with a trough, the wave
power will decrease in a process called destructive interference.
4. Explain how wave reflections, standing waves, and resonance arise.
When two waves’ crests combine suddenly, a Rogue wave is formed. This is a freak
wave that is tremendously strong and has to power to sink ships. Unfortunately, it is
impossible to detect or prevent this from happening. A tidal bore is when water of a
different density rushes into a harbor. This is often mistaken for a tsunami, but
really is just a fast coming tide. The last one is the Seiche. A seiche is a resonation
wave that happens inside a semi-enclosed body of water. A seiche can be generated
by winds or by a tsunami that has entered the region. It will resonate back and
fourth between the two shores; these waves have 1 crest and 1 trough.
5. Relate wave interference and resonance to marine hazards.
Wave interference creates random waves that can take a marine town/location by
surprise. One second there might be a calm wave, and another seconds a 30m wave
might destroy their property. Marine resonance: the amplification of waves, also can pose a huge risk to marine property, especially ships. These waves are undetectable
and can suddenly appear to sink a ship.
Learning Goals – Waves 4
1. Define wave breaking and determine when a wave will break.
Wave breaking is when a wave collapses and results in a release of energy. A wave
will break when h/l>1/7 or h/d>3/4. The wave becomes too high for the base to
support it. Ocean floor restricts wave motion and the crest overruns a trough. Wave
energy comes from breaking wave!
2. Differentiate between breaker types; Predict which type will be found on a given
Breaker types are classified according to the wave they strike a beach. A spilling
breaker gently spills onto a beach over a large area. A plunging breaker plunges
onto a break; similar to a wave tube and is perfect for surfing. A surging breaker
collapses over a beach and all of its energy is concentrated into one area. The main
factor that differentiates these waves from each other is the slope of a beach. A
gentile slope will mean a gentile wave. A steep slope will mean a violent wave.
3. Describe how coastlines affect waves and how waves affect coastlines.
As waves approach coastline, they refract and bend towards headlands and away
from bays. This is because the first part of the wave that approaches the beach will
slow down first, causing the entire wave to bend towards the beach. This will cause
headlands to erode over time to from a huge bay.
4. Compare and contrast the effects of breakwaters, groins, seawalls, and other
structures on costal processes.
Breakwaters block waves before they hit the coast. Results in erosion and
Groins/Jetties block the beach sediments from being carries away.
Seawalls are built to protect the coast against the erosional effects of waves. They
reflect the wave energy. But over time, they will erode and collapse. Learning Goals – Storms 1
1. Be wary of the main storm hazards.
Storm hazards include lightning, tornado, hail, downpours of rain and downpours of
2. Describe the different types of lightning, how they form, and what happens when
they strike something.
There are two types of lightning, IC lightning and CG lightning. There are to types of
CG lightning, positive and negative. The positive comes from a positive charge on the
top of the anvil cloud; these are the most powerful and cause the majority of forest
fires in Canada. The negative charge is an accumulation of negative electrons on the
base of the cloud. These are much more common and are slightly less dangerous.
3. Recognize thunderstorms, be able to identify thunderstorm components, and
explain how they evolve.
The different parts of a thunderstorm are the anvil (top of the storm, sometimes
updraft might overshoot the anvil), wall cloud (cloud where the tornado forms), arc
cloud (warm air pushed up by downbursts). Thunderstorm evolves in three stages,
the Cumulus stage (updraft dominates), Mature stage (updraft and downdraft;
violent), Dissipating stage (downdrafts).
4. Explain how storms get their energy from the sun.
Storms get their energy indirectly from the sun. The two things that power storms
are temperature and humidity. As solar energy shines into Earth’s atmosphere, the
ground to form sensible heat absorbs some of it and latent heat (other parts are
reflected off the clouds and t