EOSC 114 Notes for Exam - Violent Ocean

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Department
Earth and Ocean Sciences
Course Code
EOSC 114
Professor
Leah May Ver

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Description
EOSC 114: Tsunami Learning Goals 1. Identify key properties of waves Crest Trough Wavelength Amplitude Wave Height Period Frequency Speed 2. Use these properties to determine wave Deep water: when waves are at depth equal or speed and behavior in either shallow or deep deeper than L/2do not feel the bottom, move water in circles --longer wavelength travel faster than shorter wavelengths b/c dispersive (depend on L) Shallow water: waves are at depth higher than L/20feel bottom, move in ellipses --all shallow waves travel at same speed at same depth 3. Explain how waves move matter and energy Matter (water particles)does not transport matter, particles just move in circle/ellipses, no net movement Energyonce wave breaks, energy becomes KE in surfKE moves water up beach, transported into PE on beach (effectively “absorbed” by the beach, stored as PE) 4. Describe the forces that generate waves, Generating force: eliminate waves, and return the ocean to a flat, -Wind undisturbed surface -Tsunami, landslides, volcanoes, storm surges -Gravitational attraction, Earth rotation Restoring force: surface tension, gravity 5. Explain the factors that determine the “Sea State” (ocean condition/roughness): roughness of the sea -Speed -Fetch (area of uninterrupted wind blown) -Duration (time wind blown over fetch) 6. Describe how waves interact; explain Constructive interference: additive constructive and destructive interference Deconstructive interference: subtract 7. Describe wave refraction, seiche (standing Wave refraction: waves in enclosed or semi-enclosed bodies), -near coast, side of wave closest to coast and resonance; how do these affect the coast slows more than rest, causing refraction. and people? -refraction also causes shore straightening by eroding headlands (land that sticks out) and filling in embayments (curved parts) with the eroded sediment Seiche: resonating wave in (semi-)enclosed body of water 8. Relate wave interference and resonance to Wave interferenceconstructive interference marine hazards of 2 wave trains can cause rogue waves (often by Cape of Good Hope, South Africa); very unpredictable and dangerous EOSC 114: Tsunami Learning Goals Resonanceseiches resonate within contained areas, cause repeated damage 9. Explain how a tsunami compares with other -much longer wavelength L ocean waves -shallow-water wave -very fast -large period 10. Discuss why tsunami come ashore so -When tsunami waves are shoaling (slow violently down, shorter wavelengths while approaching shore), energy is build up. All the energy in the water hits shore very fast and with lots of momentum 11. Describe how tsunami form and how they Earthquake/volcanic eruptions, or rapid are detected addition of masses (landslides, meteors, icebergs) -detected by tsunameters (DART buoys in water) that measure small tsunami waves -PTWS(pacific tsunami warning system)earthquake hits, seismographs read magnitude, anticipate tsunamiread tsunami dangerrelay to dissemination points to public 12. Identify tsunami warning signs, and know -Water level of shore decreases how to respond 13. Describe how storm surges are generated S
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