Complete EOSC 112 Notes (With Visuals)

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Published on 21 Apr 2014
School
Course
Professor
EOSC 112
Radiation Balance 3
Sun + Earth’s Temperature 3
Effects on Radiation 4
Changes in Temperature 5
Summary 6
Atmosphere 6
Earth’s Features 6
Non-Rotating Earth - No Continents 7
Rotating Earth - No Continents 8
Relevance of Continents 8
Pressure 9
Winds 9
Monsoons 10
Hydrosphere 11
Heat Transfer 11
Ekman Transport 11
Effects in Regions 13
Density 14
Controls on Temperature 15
Controls on Salinity 15
Ocean Circulation 16
Lithosphere 17
Structure of the Earth 17
Continental Drift 18
Plate Boundaries 19
Heat 19
Wilson Cycle 19
Biosphere 20
The Linnaean Classification System 20
Ecosystems 21
Food Chains 21
Productivity 23
Nutrients 25
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Greenhouse Gasses 26
The Carbon Cycle 27
Reservoirs 27
Cycles 28
Feedback 29
Changes in Solar Radiation 30
Long-Term 30
The Faint Young Sun Paradox 31
Short-Term 31
Changes in Albedo 31
Cloud Cover and Type 32
Cryosphere 32
Precipitation Patterns & Land Cover 33
Tectonics 33
Long Term Climate Evolution 34
Huronian Glaciation 34
Snowball Earth 35
Permo-Carboniferous Glaciation 36
Pleistocene Glaciations 36
Long-Term Causes 37
Pleistocene Ice Ages 38
Features 38
Evidence 39
Causes 39
Milankovich Cycles 40
Causes and Effects 41
Modern Climate Changes 42
Small Climatic Variations 43
Human Influences 44
Evidence 45
Future Cases 46
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Radiation Balance
!"#$%!(W)!=!Energy!/!Time!;!amount!of!energy!
that!is!emitted,!absorbed!or!reflected!per!unit!
of!time!
&'($)$*+,-.:!Distance!from!troth!to!troth,!or!
crest!to!crest!
/%$01$*23:!The!number!of!crests!that!passes!a!
fixes!point!!
&4$*5.67'#:!As!temperature!increases,!the!
wavelength!decreases!!
8Earth’s!average!temperature!is!15°!!and!a!
human!is!around!30!
8Peak!wavelength!of!radiation!occur!for!a!
human!is!just!to!the!left!of!Earth’s!peak!on!
the!emissions!spectra.!
Sun + Earth’s Temperature!
9:6;1*5.6<$'=6#'($)$*+,-64.6>?:@6𝜇A6
8w(constant)=2897𝜇m/K!
B:!Sun’s!T!≈!5794K!
B:6C'%,-5.6<$'=6#'($)$*+,-64.699:D6𝜇A66
8Using!Wein’s!law!again!
8!Earth’s!T!≈!254.1K!≈!Y18!Celsius!(Effective!Radiating!Temp)!
;1*5.6%'E41.!=!700,000,000!meters!!
;1*5.6;1%F'2$6G%$'!=!6.16x1018!m2!
C'%,-H;1*6I4.,'*2$!=!150*109!m!
J$A<$%',1%$6"F6,-$6.1*!=!6000K!
K:6C*$%+36$A4,,$E6L36,-$6.1*6M6NK:@6A4)6&OAP66
this!is!only!per!meter!squared!emitted!
4.To!find!total!energy!from!sun!we!need!its!SA!
86;G6.<-$%$6Q6DR%B6S6C*$%+36$A4,,$E6
Total!=!3.91E26!Watts!
3
λ
=w/T
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