[EOSC 116] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (31 pages long)

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Published on 29 Nov 2016
School
UBC
Department
Earth and Ocean Sciences
Course
EOSC 116
UBC
EOSC 116
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Devin Belanger
EOSC 116 Notes/ Glossary
Module A:
The Scientific Method: Compile observations, form hypothesis (provisional theory),
test hypothesis. If hypothesis survives repeated testing, form a theory.
- Theory: a well-substantiated explanation that is repeatedly tested and confirmed
through observation and experimentation
- Law: a theory/set of theories that is observed to always happen.
- Scientific hypotheses must be testable. The findings of scientific research should be
open to scrutiny of the scientific community (continual reexamination).
Earth System Science: the interdisciplinary study of the treatment of the earth as a
complex integrated system (many interacting parts)
- The planet is a layered structure with least dense material on outside and most
dense in the core
Atmosphere: the envelope of gasses surrounding the earth
Biosphere: the area of the earth occupied by living organisms (surface,
atmosphere, hydrosphere)
Crust: about 30 km of rigid material (oceanic about 10km)
Lithosphere: crust and uppermost part of the mantle
Mantle: hot layer of semi solid rock, 2900 km thick
Asthenosphere: same material as lithosphere, but it is plastic & viscous;
moves easier (defined by it physical rather than its chemical/mineralogical
properties)
Outer/inner core: iron nickel alloy, liquid and solid respectively
Plate Tectonics: hot mantle travels up, cold crust and mantle sink
- Related to convection currents, continents pushed and pulled
- Lithosphere broken up into 7 large and 8 small plates
- Continental plates granitic (2.7g/cm3); oceanic plates basaltic (2.9g/cm3; denser)
- The less dense continental plates cant be subducted
Types of Plates:
1.Divergent/Constructive: two plates moving away from each other
Rift valley at boundary
2.Convergent: two plates being pushed into each other
Mountain ranges/volcanoes form as a result
Ocean/ocean (Aleutian islands), ocean/continent (Andes mountains) or
continent/continent (Himalayas)
3.Transform: two plates slide past each other; no material generated or subducted
(San Andreas fault)
Mineral: A naturally occurring crystalline inorganic substances with an ordered
arrangement of atoms.
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Devin Belanger
Feldspar: distinguished by the presence of alumina and silica (SiO2), most
common mineral group on earth
Calcite: most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
Halite: the mineral form of sodium chloride, also know as rock salt (NaCl)
Quartz: occurring in all different forms, habits, and colors, found in almost
every mineral environment (SiO2)
Gypsum: the most common sulfate material, an evaporate (CaSO4.2H2O)
* Any rock is an aggregate of minerals
Types of Rocks:
1.Igneous: rocks that are formed from a melt
Intrusive (Plutonic): crystallized from magma (fluid/semi-fluid material)
slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth
Extrusive (Volcanic): made from lava erupted by volcanoes above surface
* The slower the cooling, the larger the crystals (usually underground)
2.Metamorphic: an existing rock that is altered by heat and pressure until a new one
is formed
* Rocks enter equilibrium with the environment they are in, metamorphic rocks
change because they are out of equilibrium
3.Sedimentary: rocks that are formed through the deposition and solidification of
sediment.
Clastic: formed from erosion/breaking up/deposition of existing rocks;
composed of grains not crystals.
- Conglomerate: composed largely of pebbles or larger rounded particles
- Sandstone: composed mainly of sand sized particles (feldspar/quartz)
- Siltstone: composed mainly of material between size of clay and sand
- Shale: composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and silt
* The further the rock travels the finer grained it will be
- Lithification (diagensis): the process where sediments are transformed into rock
by compaction & precipitating liquid between grains (cement)
Biochemical sedimentary rocks: formed from precipitation of material
composed by organisms (chalk, limestone)
- Rocks formed from the accumulation of organisms that secrete silica skeletons
are called cherts
Chemical sedimentary rocks: formed from precipitation of material not
directly produced by biology (Evaporites= formed by ocean evaporation)
* Rock Cycle: the interactions between the 3 types (one changing into the other)
Lithostratigraphy: how the layers of rock (strata) are laid down gives us relative
order of past events; the study has 3 basic principles (Nicolas Steno)
Principle of original horizontality
Principle of superposition
Principle of lateral continuity
James Hutton: Noticed breaks in strata, unconformities
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Document Summary

The scientific method: compile observations, form hypothesis (provisional theory), test hypothesis. If hypothesis survives repeated testing, form a theory. Theory: a well-substantiated explanation that is repeatedly tested and confirmed through observation and experimentation. Law: a theory/set of theories that is observed to always happen. The findings of scientific research should be open to scrutiny of the scientific community (continual reexamination). Earth system science: the interdisciplinary study of the treatment of the earth as a complex integrated system (many interacting parts) The planet is a layered structure with least dense material on outside and most dense in the core. Atmosphere: the envelope of gasses surrounding the earth. Biosphere: the area of the earth occupied by living organisms (surface, atmosphere, hydrosphere) Crust: about 30 km of rigid material (oceanic about 10km) Lithosphere: crust and uppermost part of the mantle. Mantle: hot layer of semi solid rock, 2900 km thick.

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