FMST 210 Study Guide - Object Permanence, Emotional Dysregulation, Day Care
65 views9 pages
Chapter 6 Independent Questions
I. Theories of Social and Personality Development
A. Psychoanalytical Perspectives – See lecture notes
B. Ethological Perspectives
1. (a) Bowlby distinguished between two different types of affectionate human relationships. Clarify
the difference between an affectionate bond and attachment? (Note: See definitions in the margin,
as the phrasing in the paragraph is poor.) P149-150
Affectionate bond: the emotional tie to an infant experienced by a parent
Attachment: the emotional tie to a parent experienced by an infant from which the
child derives security
(b) Define reactive attachment disorder. Child is attached to parents
Reactive attachment disorder: A disorder that appears to prevent a child from forming
close social relationship.
Research Report: Adoption and Development
2. Read the research report on pp. 150-151.
(a) Why might the formation of attachment be more challenging for infants that are adopted?
Many aspects of temperament and personality are inherited.
Example: 2 really shy parents adopt a very outgoing child; the parents may
view the child‘s behavior as difficult in some ways.
Adoptive parents need to take into account the child‘s circumstances prior to the
adoption to form a realistic set of expectations.
Children adopted before of 6 months who have no history of abuse etc, are
indistinguishable from non-adopted children in security of attachment,
cognitive development and social adjustment. This is true even is its
(b) What did Elinor Ames‘s (1997) research with Romanian orphans find?
Found that the infants who had lived in the Romanian orphanages for more than 4
months before being adopted by British Columbian families tended to have more
psychological and motor-behavior problems than non-adopted children. The more
months they lived in the Romanian orphanage the more serious their difficulties were.
(c) What did Lucy LeMare‘s (2001) research with Romanian orphans find?
She assessed Romanian Orphans that were 10 years old. They found that there was
considerable variability between individuals but as a group the RO continued to show
significantly more difficulties than comparable Canadian-born or early-adopted
RO children had lower than average IQ‘s and academic achievement, and more
difficulties with attention, learning and peer relationships
A. The Parents’ Attachment to the Infant
3. (a) Define synchrony.
Synchrony: A mutual, interlocking pattern of attachment behaviors shared by a parent
and a child
(b) Identify the parental behaviours that are similar between fathers and mothers.
Depend more on the development of synchrony than on contact immediately after
The father seems to have the same repertoire of attachment behaviors as do mothers.
During the early weeks of the baby‘s life, fathers touch, talk to and cuddle their babies
in the same ways mothers do.
(c) Identify the parental behaviours that are different between fathers and mothers.
After the first week, signs of a kind of a specialization of parental behaviors begin to
emerge. Fathers spend more time playing with the baby, with more physical
roughhousing; mothers spend more in routine care giving and also talk to and smile at
the baby more.
This does not mean that fathers have a weaker affection bond with the infant,
it only means that fathers and mothers use different attachment behaviors in
interacting with their infants.
By 6 months, there are more mother-father differences. Signs of positive emotional
states, such as smiling appear gradually and subtly when babies are interacting with
their mothers. Babies laugh and wriggle with delight in short intense burst in
interactions with their fathers. This means that infants recognize the same
behavioral differences in mothers and fathers that development scientist do when they
observe parental behavior.
B. The Infants’ Attachment to the Parents
i. Establishing Attachment – See lecture notes
ii. Attachment Behaviours
4. Some parent-infant interactions incorporate affect dysregulation. Describe this type of interactional
pattern and record the research findings related to it.
Affect Dysreugulation: An interaction pattern in which a care givers emotional
response to an infant interfere with the baby‘s ability to learn how to regulate his or
More common in infant-mother pairs in which mother displays low level of
sensitivity to the infants needs and the infant is insecurely attached.
The quality of the emotional give-and take in interactions between an infant
and his caregivers is important to the child‘s ability to control emotions such
as anger and frustration in later years
iii. Internal Models – See lecture notes
C. Variations in Attachment Quality
i. Secure and Insecure Attachments – See lecture notes
ii. Stability of Attachment Classifications – See lecture notes
D. Caregiver characteristics and attachment
i. Emotional Responsiveness
5. (a) Define the two crucial ingredients for secure attachment.
Secure attachment: a pattern of attachment in which an infant readily separates from
the parent, seeks proximity when stressed and uses the parent as a safe bas for
Has been the most common pattern in every country
(b) A low level of parental responsiveness is associated with both types of insecure attachment.
However, each type of insecure attachment is distinct. Explain what parental responses are
associated with (i) avoidant patterns of attachment, (ii) ambivalent patterns of attachment (which is
the same as the ―anxious‖ type), and (iii) disorganized/disoriented patterns of attachment (which is
a fourth type of attachment identified by more contemporary researchers – that is, not one of
Ainsworth‘s three types of attachment).
Avoidant attachment: A pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids contact with
the parent and shows no preference for the parent over other people
Ambivalent attachment: A pattern of attachment in which the infant shows little
exploratory behavior, is greatly upset when separated from the parent, and is not
reassured by his or her return or efforts to comfort him.
Disorganized/disoriented attachment: A pattern of attachment in which an infant
seems confused or apprehensive and shows contradictory behavior, such as moving
toward the parent while looking away from him or her
ii. Marital Status and SES
6. (a) How does age influence the attachment process?
For the first 2, 3 years: The pattern of attachment a child shows is in some sense a
property of each specific relationship.
30% of the children are securely attached to one parent and insecurely
attached to the other, with both possible combinations equally likely.
It is the quality of each relationship that determines the security of the
child‘s attachment to that specific adult.
By age 4 or 5: The internal model becomes more a property of the child and more
generalized across relationships, and thus more resistant to change. At that point, the
child tends to impose the model on new relationships, including relationships with
teachers or peers.
(b) How does marital conflict influence the attachment process?
Marital status, predicts attachment quality. The effects of marital status may be due to
other characteristics of parents who choose to marry, cohabit, or remain single.
Another one is educational background.
Marital conflict poses risks for the development of attachment. Researchers have
found that 6 months olds who are aggressive toward each other, are more likely to
display signs of emotional withdrawals than babies who are not so exposed. Emotional
withdrawal lessens the chances that he will develop a secure attachment to his primary
iii. Mental Health – (optional reading – not on exams)
E. Long-term Consequences of Attachment Quality
7. The effects of attachment quality have been empirically investigated. Summarize the effects of
attachment during the stages of (a) childhood, (b) adolescence and (c) adulthood.
Chapter 6 independent questions: theories of social and personality development, psychoanalytical perspectives see lecture notes, ethological perspectives (a) bowlby distinguished between two different types of affectionate human relationships. Clarify the difference between an affectionate bond and attachment? (note: see definitions in the margin, as the phrasing in the paragraph is poor. ) Affectionate bond: the emotional tie to an infant experienced by a parent. Attachment: the emotional tie to a parent experienced by an infant from which the child derives security (b) define reactive attachment disorder. Reactive attachment disorder: a disorder that appears to prevent a child from forming close social relationship. Research report: adoption and development: read the research report on pp. Many aspects of temperament and personality are inherited. Example: 2 really shy parents adopt a very outgoing child; the parents may view the child s behavior as difficult in some ways.