Politics: ancient definition: the art of governing, modern definition: the science of governing, post-modern definition: the construction of and resistance to power in society as a whole. Polis: the root of the world politics"; means city-state. Plato"s the simile of the cave : cave analogy shows the need for a philosopher king . Philosopher king = theoretical rulers: philosopher goes out of cave and sees sun, and sees that world has truth. Return to cave and sees that fire is not real: projects shadows: best government is to find a future ruler a career they like better than government. Rich government in terms of the happiness of a right and rational life. Machiavelli"s the prince : politics is about the power of the ruler to control fortune or fate. Analyzed politics for what it really is: a struggle for power. The virtu of the prince must overcome the fortuna of politics: only able to shape fortune; ex: river + dam.