-A reaction to the molecular approach of structuralism and based on the notion that
whole great than the sum pf the parts.
Gestalt Psychology … asserts that the perception of objectts is produced by
particular cofigurations of the elements of stimuli, that we experience things as
Assumed that the brain is operating ny means of set of self organizing tendencies.
North American reaction to structuralism.
European society was more developed than the American society, so americans
wanted to know what is the benefit of a specific kind of ability
What can you do with conscious? What is it good for?
What is short term memory good for?
-Strongly influenced by darwins theory of evoluton
--He proposed that every creature (even humans) compete for resources.
--There is variation amongst human beigns, some are better. Some are more
successful than others.
The ones that get more tend to have more offspring. So more and more of the
population will have these traits.
Over time more and more human beings had this ability.
Freued and the unconscious
Freudism gave rise to clicinical psychology. (father of psychoanalysis)
Recognistion that there are 2 different worlds conscious and unconscious.
Freud spent time bringing uncounscious mind, and helped people bring stuff
from the uncounsiouc mind to the conscious mind.
Major deviation fro structuralism.
Reaction to struculiasm. Bold move away from strucutralism and oother precursor
movmenets. Rejected the focus on the conscious mind, because its not observable.
Rose in north America. Favored nurture over nature as the fonoundation of for
learning and development.
2 thoughts : nature vs nurture
Nature: we are born the way we are because of that’s how we’re born.
Nurture: at birth everybody is exactly the same, nothing is yet written but our
upbringing determines what we are and what we become.
BEHAVIOURSISTS WERE ON THE SIDE OF Nurture
Being born is a clean slate. (if the baby is born normally (no retardations)) Empericisist view. Everything we know is because of our experience. Very positive
message during the times.
Believe that everyone learns the same way. No reason for why an animal should
have a different way of learning than a human; they did most of their research with
animals. It’s unethical to put someone in a cage for 29 years.. But its fine with an
Environmental factors determine behavior.
Responses that lead to positive outcoems are repeated.
Response that lead to negatives outcomes are not rrpeated.
PSYCHOLOGY SHOULD CONCERN ITSELF WITH PUBLICILY BOSERVABOLE
They considred the brain as a black box. We can see 4 sides, but cant see inside.
FREE WILL IS AN ILLUSION.
SCIENETIFIC STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EVNVIRONMETAL STIMULI
AND THE RESPEONSES OF THE ORGANISM******
A reaction to behaviorism and psychoanalysis which emphaisized inficivudals
uniques nad potential and stressed the importance of growth self-actualisation.
Gave rise to a new powerful movement called POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY.
Lets focus on building the positive side. Every human being strives for disticintion
and uniqueness, and that’s what the humanists wanted to do. We all have different
aspirations (money, professional etc)
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVISSM
-Deals with attention sensation perception memory
Human behaviour is a library of programs and its our responsibility to study these
programs.Where did these programs come from.
School of thought that started because of the use of technology.
People realized that what these computers did seemed similar to what human
beings did. Analgoies.
If you change yourself its because your knowledge stucture is chaning (your
program is changing.)
1950-COMPUTERS WERE INTRODUCED
Structuralism: defined psychology as the scientific study of the contents of the
conscious mind. Basis
Freudism: Rose independnantly. Evoloution of Psychology: PART 3
Ulrich Neissser(1967), ina book entitled cognititve psychology, defiend cognititve
psychology as that area of psychology that focuses on thte faculty of kowing (vs
emotion or volition)
The core focus off cognitive psychology is on interna mental states, one how people
acquire process and store information
Cognition involoves all processes by which the sensory input is transformed,
reduced, elaborated, stored, recovred, and used. It is concerened with thesr
processes even when hey operate in the absece of relevant stimulation, as when the
activity is imaging and hallucinating, dreamin etc.
Concerned with the integration of mind, body and behavior
Examined/explained behavior in terms of physiological(brain, neural) processes
J.Olds- Electrical stimulation of the brain evokes smotional responses in
R.Sperry- Revealed hat the left and right brain have different specializations
D.Hebb- Speculated that cell-assemblies explain neural networks.
“Cells that fire together, wire together”-Donald Hebb
^computers are based on this
Cognitive Neuroscience: the Current School
Literally the science that looks at cogtive and biological also the neurology portion
Includes psychology, linguistics, neurology, physiology, pharmacology, chemistry
Explain in terms of software, and hardware.
Psychology today is
Science that studies behavior and the mind, and physiological process that mediate
them and IT IS THE PROFESSION THAT APPLIES THE ACUUMULUATED
KNOWLEDGE OF THIS SCIENCE TO PRACTICAL PROBLEMS
It shares its themes/questions
With philosophy and the humanities i.e focusing on free will, vs determinism;
mind vs matter; love vs loss
And its method with natural sciences
Our experience of the world is highly subjective
“we don’t see things the way they are, we see them the way we are”
Our expectations tend to determine the way we perceive and interpret events. Confirmation bias
The tendency for us to seek out information that is consistent wit hour
expectations and discount information that is not consistent with our expectations
Limited Data Problem
We tend to make inferences/ conclusion on the basis of very little
Psychology is theoretically diverse
A theory is a system of terrlated concepts used to explain a set of observations
There is noone grand theory to texplain all behavior.
A set of theories provide a more eomplete explanataion that any one theory could
Contemporary schools of though in psychology
What cuases our behavior?
What determines how well you do in this class?
What determines how you respond to a driver who flips you the bird?
*********MEMORY**** CHAPTER 7 Monday September 17
Nothing that isn’t connected to memory.
If you’ve lost all memory you can’t function (you’re dead.)
M.Q-memory quotient. If there is a memory difference of more than 15 with their iq
the y are considered amnesic.
Dimensia-Short term memory loss plus other memory loss (even walking, bowel
Memory stores fragments of events and experiences that must be reconstruceted
-a relatively permanante adaptive response to experiences
-the mental function we use for encoding information about stimuli events,
images, etc., for retaining it (the info) and for retrieving ti after the original stimuli
are no longer present Cognitive/Neuroscience:
-A collection of processes and data strucures required for encoding, retaining and
-An information “handling system” in the mind/brain
THERE IS NO DIFFERENCE B/W LEARNING AND MEMORY
Habits, to get rid of them (ie. smoking) we use the learning theory.
ANATOMY OF A MEMORY EXPERIMENT
-Encoding-taking it from the outside and translating into the neurocode which our
brain can use
-Decoding-taking it from the inside, and translating into the outside code which we
-Encoding is the process of interpresting and ttranforming information into the code
used by the brain
-Common encoding variables
type or amount of information
timing of access to information
manner of interacting with information—attention—this is the most
Consolidation- the process of stablalizing memory after its initial acquisition
Common retention interval variables
Insturctions about future relevance of learning materials (remember vs
forgetting)- in the first 24 hrs you lose 70% of everything you’ve learnt. TESTING/DECODING
-Decoding is the process of translating stored information back into the code used
ofr reporting/expressing it
-Common testing phase variables:
Nature of the test (recall vs recognition)
Concurrent activity (with vs without distraction)
Instuctions about study-phase relevance of test(explicit vs implicit)
Implicit test-a test which requires you to use the info you’ve learnt (mention the
topic, and start talking)
Explicit test- I taught you that 10 mins ago, what was it?
One bit-amount of info that reduces your uncertainty by 50%
Modal: the average of the models.
*****************WEDNESDAY September 19 ****************
Difference b/w short term memory and working memory
Sensory Memories function
-To hold infor long enough for parsing by higher level processes.
Ionic memory-the sensory vor visual stimuli that have just been perceived
Echoic memory-When you’re playing a game, someone comes up and says
you wanna go for coffee? You say HUH? It was HELD in your echoic memory. When
you’re engaged in the game, its not processed.
ICONIC memory capacity:
4-5 items at one time. Subjects reported that they could remember everything, but
when they started to recite what they were saying they forgot-like sensory memory
Second time, subjects only had to report a specific part of what they saw(about 4.5
items). PARTIAL REPORT
Codiing in Iconic Memory
Everytime I look in different places. Then you your iconic memory loses it and
replaces it with what you’re looking at the second time. –Displacement
Sensory memory codes info in terms of its physical features.
CAPACITY OF ICONIC MEMORY-VIRTUALLY UNLIMITED
FORGETTING IN ICONIC MEMORY-DISPLACEMENT
FORGETTING IN STM-DISPLACEMENT ***************************FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 21 ******
SHORT TERM MEMORY FUNCTION
William james-we know what someone is gonna say in the next 2 seconds. We know
whats going to happen in the next 2 seconds, and 13 seconds in the past.
In the absence diverted attention you can last 30 seconds.
WORKING MEMORY: a system for holding a small number of stimuli and for
operating on them.
CAPACITY F STM CHUNKING
What is a chunk-a personally meaningful unit of information
3cunks; fed ex UPS USPS
Chase and ericsoon chunking training study
Worked with a subject oer 2 years 250 hours hours of lab practice
Increased digit span from 7 items
Changed the cpacity of forming chunks- making bigger chunks
Capaacity of STM; Efffects of knowledge
*****************MONDAY SEPTEMBER 24 TH***************************
what kind of evidence would someone want to have to show new distinction
Forgetting in STM-20s___Not due to decay, no evidence to support that
Forgetting in stm is not due to decay its because of build of proactive interference.
Subjects can’t remember what they told them in the last trial.
Proactive Interference (PI): Previous learning and interferes/hinders current
learning and remembering.
Retroactive interferene (RI) Current learning interferes/hinders remembering for
materials learned previously
Sleep prevents retroactive interference (almost impossible to do studies)
Serial Position Curve
x-Serial_position.png When you write a paper make the beginning and end strong because that’s what
According to the multi modal model diagram, what explains the recency portion of
the serial position curve?
What can you do to affect the primacy portion, without effecting the recency
portion? The rate at presenting items affects the recency portion and not the
***********************************September 26 2012**************************
Manipulations-Rehearsal (goes from stm to ltm) –
Prospective memory- remember what you want/will do in the future. Make plans
and REMEMBERING them.
Retrospective memory-remember what you did in the past
COMPONENTS OF LTM
Can you tell me 2 properties that distinguish between stm and ltm?
Episodic memory-codes time places and emotion information associated with
events and expericnes.
-TYPE OF INFORMATION
SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE ASSOCIATED WITH RETRIEVAL
0source of information
method of cueing
Differences b/w semantic and episodeic memory
LEVELS OF PROCESSING
Get rid of the notion that we have storage boxes in our head. (we are not
warehouses.)-CRAIK AND LOCKHART
Think of memory in terms of the procedures we use to examine stimuli.
Two types of rehearseal
Maintenance rehaeasal: repetitiof the same type of precessing. Has no effect on
Elaborative rehearseal: processing that moves from shallow to deepr levels and
thereby improves episodic memory. Difference between memorizing your shopping
list and someone else’s shopping list. LEVELS OF PROCESSING
Acording to the levels of precessing how can you explain the recency affect? Primacy
The first few items and the last few items get more rehearsed(more elaborative and
What is the levels of processing equivaltnt to short term memory –maintenance
*******************************SEPTEMBER 28 **************
SERIAL POSITION curve-caused type of processing allocated to different items
Being intoxicated and learn something, you can remember it if you’re intoxicated
Transfer appropriate processing- TAP
LoP focused only on what happens at time of study
TAP- forcuses on the relelationship b/w study and test phase processing
Semantic-how is sounds? What do you think sounds like?
Rhyme-How does it literally sound like? What does it rhyme with?
PHysicsal enviroment effects
People remember better when you’re in the same environment as the one you
studied in. Memoriizng shit underwater and you’re tested on land-bad.
Memoring on land-tested on land-good.
The environment matters only when it is very distinct
Like environments, people remember better (ex: studied on land, tested on land;
studied when sad, tested when sad)
Consistent with your understanding of TAP, what activites are most critical for
achieving a high score on a test?
- stay in the same mood/environment (has to be pretty distinct)
- cold temperatures seem to get in the way of your thinking
- studying the same way you’re going to be tested (practice)
- study doing questions rather than straight memorizing
- concrete goals of what you understand/want to learn
- physiological state matters
- psychological preparedness rd
*********October 3 ***********
Goals of research
Measurement and description
Measurement-the act of making observations; the assignment of numbers or
labels to events, objects, behaviors
Understanding & description
-cause-effect relationships are special
Basic vs applied research
Ways of knowing
The view that certain skills or ablitiees are native or hiard wired into the
brain at bitth (nature)
The view that the exercise of reason (rather than experience, authority, or
spirtual revelation) provides the primary basis for knowledge
The view that knowledge comes from thse in a position of authority
The view that our knowledge comes from experience..that he rain has inborn
capabilities for learning from the environment but does not include innate
Variants of empiricism
Seeing is believing
The believe/conviction that we see the world precisely as it is
The view that the scienctificc method is the only route to valid and reliable
Other problems with the experience way of knowing
Experience based knowledge is biased by Hindsight—The tendency to exaggerate our ability to have forsenn how
something would turn out after learning how has turned out.
Overconfidence—The tendency to overestime the accuracy of our current
Tendency to focus on confirmation
Willingness to be satisfied by insufficient/limited data
Availability Heuristic-The tendency to judge the probability of an event by the ease
with which it comes to mind
The scientific Method: Definition
An approach to making observations(collecting data), under the guidance of