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PSYC 101
Peter Graf

Gestaltism -A reaction to the molecular approach of structuralism and based on the notion that whole great than the sum pf the parts. Gestalt Psychology … asserts that the perception of objectts is produced by particular cofigurations of the elements of stimuli, that we experience things as unified wholes. Assumed that the brain is operating ny means of set of self organizing tendencies. Funtionalism North American reaction to structuralism. European society was more developed than the American society, so americans wanted to know what is the benefit of a specific kind of ability What can you do with conscious? What is it good for? What is short term memory good for? -Strongly influenced by darwins theory of evoluton --He proposed that every creature (even humans) compete for resources. --There is variation amongst human beigns, some are better. Some are more successful than others. The ones that get more tend to have more offspring. So more and more of the population will have these traits. Over time more and more human beings had this ability. Freued and the unconscious Freudism gave rise to clicinical psychology. (father of psychoanalysis) Talk thereapy Recognistion that there are 2 different worlds conscious and unconscious. Freud spent time bringing uncounscious mind, and helped people bring stuff from the uncounsiouc mind to the conscious mind. Major deviation fro structuralism. BEHAVIORISM Reaction to struculiasm. Bold move away from strucutralism and oother precursor movmenets. Rejected the focus on the conscious mind, because its not observable. Rose in north America. Favored nurture over nature as the fonoundation of for learning and development. 2 thoughts : nature vs nurture Nature: we are born the way we are because of that’s how we’re born. Nurture: at birth everybody is exactly the same, nothing is yet written but our upbringing determines what we are and what we become. BEHAVIOURSISTS WERE ON THE SIDE OF Nurture Being born is a clean slate. (if the baby is born normally (no retardations)) Empericisist view. Everything we know is because of our experience. Very positive message during the times. Believe that everyone learns the same way. No reason for why an animal should have a different way of learning than a human; they did most of their research with animals. It’s unethical to put someone in a cage for 29 years.. But its fine with an animal… Environmental factors determine behavior. Responses that lead to positive outcoems are repeated. Response that lead to negatives outcomes are not rrpeated. PSYCHOLOGY SHOULD CONCERN ITSELF WITH PUBLICILY BOSERVABOLE DBEHAVIOR. They considred the brain as a black box. We can see 4 sides, but cant see inside. FREE WILL IS AN ILLUSION. SCIENETIFIC STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EVNVIRONMETAL STIMULI AND THE RESPEONSES OF THE ORGANISM****** HUMANISM A reaction to behaviorism and psychoanalysis which emphaisized inficivudals uniques nad potential and stressed the importance of growth self-actualisation. Gave rise to a new powerful movement called POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY. Lets focus on building the positive side. Every human being strives for disticintion and uniqueness, and that’s what the humanists wanted to do. We all have different aspirations (money, professional etc) COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVISSM -Deals with attention sensation perception memory Human behaviour is a library of programs and its our responsibility to study these programs.Where did these programs come from. School of thought that started because of the use of technology. People realized that what these computers did seemed similar to what human beings did. Analgoies. If you change yourself its because your knowledge stucture is chaning (your program is changing.) 1950-COMPUTERS WERE INTRODUCED Structuralism: defined psychology as the scientific study of the contents of the conscious mind. Basis Freudism: Rose independnantly. Evoloution of Psychology: PART 3 Cognitivism Ulrich Neissser(1967), ina book entitled cognititve psychology, defiend cognititve psychology as that area of psychology that focuses on thte faculty of kowing (vs emotion or volition) The core focus off cognitive psychology is on interna mental states, one how people acquire process and store information Cognition involoves all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovred, and used. It is concerened with thesr processes even when hey operate in the absece of relevant stimulation, as when the activity is imaging and hallucinating, dreamin etc. Biologism Concerned with the integration of mind, body and behavior Examined/explained behavior in terms of physiological(brain, neural) processes J.Olds- Electrical stimulation of the brain evokes smotional responses in animals R.Sperry- Revealed hat the left and right brain have different specializations D.Hebb- Speculated that cell-assemblies explain neural networks. “Cells that fire together, wire together”-Donald Hebb ^computers are based on this Cognitive Neuroscience: the Current School Literally the science that looks at cogtive and biological also the neurology portion Includes psychology, linguistics, neurology, physiology, pharmacology, chemistry Explain in terms of software, and hardware. Psychology today is Science that studies behavior and the mind, and physiological process that mediate them and IT IS THE PROFESSION THAT APPLIES THE ACUUMULUATED KNOWLEDGE OF THIS SCIENCE TO PRACTICAL PROBLEMS It shares its themes/questions With philosophy and the humanities i.e focusing on free will, vs determinism; mind vs matter; love vs loss And its method with natural sciences Our experience of the world is highly subjective “we don’t see things the way they are, we see them the way we are” Expectation problem Our expectations tend to determine the way we perceive and interpret events. Confirmation bias The tendency for us to seek out information that is consistent wit hour expectations and discount information that is not consistent with our expectations Limited Data Problem We tend to make inferences/ conclusion on the basis of very little data/information Psychology is theoretically diverse A theory is a system of terrlated concepts used to explain a set of observations There is noone grand theory to texplain all behavior. A set of theories provide a more eomplete explanataion that any one theory could Contemporary schools of though in psychology What cuases our behavior? What determines how well you do in this class? What determines how you respond to a driver who flips you the bird? th *********MEMORY**** CHAPTER 7 Monday September 17 Nothing that isn’t connected to memory. If you’ve lost all memory you can’t function (you’re dead.) M.Q-memory quotient. If there is a memory difference of more than 15 with their iq the y are considered amnesic. Dimensia-Short term memory loss plus other memory loss (even walking, bowel control) Memory stores fragments of events and experiences that must be reconstruceted during recollection. Memory is.. Functionalist: -a relatively permanante adaptive response to experiences -the mental function we use for encoding information about stimuli events, images, etc., for retaining it (the info) and for retrieving ti after the original stimuli are no longer present Cognitive/Neuroscience: -A collection of processes and data strucures required for encoding, retaining and retrieving information -An information “handling system” in the mind/brain THERE IS NO DIFFERENCE B/W LEARNING AND MEMORY Habits, to get rid of them (ie. smoking) we use the learning theory. ANATOMY OF A MEMORY EXPERIMENT Phase 1 -Studying/learning -Acquisition -Encoding-taking it from the outside and translating into the neurocode which our brain can use Phase 2 -Retaining -Storage -Consolidating/recoding Phase 3 -Testing -Retrieval -Decoding-taking it from the inside, and translating into the outside code which we can use. ACQUISITION/ENCODING -Encoding is the process of interpresting and ttranforming information into the code used by the brain -Common encoding variables type or amount of information timing of access to information manner of interacting with information—attention—this is the most influential RETAINING/CONSOLIDATING Consolidation- the process of stablalizing memory after its initial acquisition Common retention interval variables Duration Interveinign activity Insturctions about future relevance of learning materials (remember vs forgetting)- in the first 24 hrs you lose 70% of everything you’ve learnt. TESTING/DECODING -Decoding is the process of translating stored information back into the code used ofr reporting/expressing it -Common testing phase variables: Nature of the test (recall vs recognition) Concurrent activity (with vs without distraction) Instuctions about study-phase relevance of test(explicit vs implicit) Implicit test-a test which requires you to use the info you’ve learnt (mention the topic, and start talking) Explicit test- I taught you that 10 mins ago, what was it? One bit-amount of info that reduces your uncertainty by 50% Modal: the average of the models. *****************WEDNESDAY September 19 **************** Difference b/w short term memory and working memory Sensory Memories function -To hold infor long enough for parsing by higher level processes. Ionic memory-the sensory vor visual stimuli that have just been perceived Echoic memory-When you’re playing a game, someone comes up and says you wanna go for coffee? You say HUH? It was HELD in your echoic memory. When you’re engaged in the game, its not processed. ICONIC memory capacity: 4-5 items at one time. Subjects reported that they could remember everything, but when they started to recite what they were saying they forgot-like sensory memory had disappeared. Second time, subjects only had to report a specific part of what they saw(about 4.5 items). PARTIAL REPORT Codiing in Iconic Memory Everytime I look in different places. Then you your iconic memory loses it and replaces it with what you’re looking at the second time. –Displacement Sensory memory codes info in terms of its physical features. CAPACITY OF ICONIC MEMORY-VIRTUALLY UNLIMITED FORGETTING IN ICONIC MEMORY-DISPLACEMENT FORGETTING IN STM-DISPLACEMENT ***************************FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 21 ****** SHORT TERM MEMORY FUNCTION William james-we know what someone is gonna say in the next 2 seconds. We know whats going to happen in the next 2 seconds, and 13 seconds in the past. In the absence diverted attention you can last 30 seconds. WORKING MEMORY: a system for holding a small number of stimuli and for operating on them. CAPACITY F STM CHUNKING 7+-2 chunks What is a chunk-a personally meaningful unit of information 3cunks; fed ex UPS USPS Training stdy Chase and ericsoon chunking training study Worked with a subject oer 2 years 250 hours hours of lab practice Increased digit span from 7 items Changed the cpacity of forming chunks- making bigger chunks Capaacity of STM; Efffects of knowledge *****************MONDAY SEPTEMBER 24 TH*************************** what kind of evidence would someone want to have to show new distinction Forgetting in STM-20s___Not due to decay, no evidence to support that Forgetting in stm is not due to decay its because of build of proactive interference. Subjects can’t remember what they told them in the last trial. Proactive Interference (PI): Previous learning and interferes/hinders current learning and remembering. Retroactive interferene (RI) Current learning interferes/hinders remembering for materials learned previously Sleep prevents retroactive interference (almost impossible to do studies) Serial Position Curve x-Serial_position.png When you write a paper make the beginning and end strong because that’s what people remember. According to the multi modal model diagram, what explains the recency portion of the serial position curve? What can you do to affect the primacy portion, without effecting the recency portion? The rate at presenting items affects the recency portion and not the primary protion. ***********************************September 26 2012************************** Manipulations-Rehearsal (goes from stm to ltm) – Prospective memory- remember what you want/will do in the future. Make plans and REMEMBERING them. Retrospective memory-remember what you did in the past COMPONENTS OF LTM Semantic- Can you tell me 2 properties that distinguish between stm and ltm? Episodic memory-codes time places and emotion information associated with events and expericnes. DIFFERENCES -TYPE OF INFORMATION SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE ASSOCIATED WITH RETRIEVAL 0source of information method of cueing Differences b/w semantic and episodeic memory LEVELS OF PROCESSING Get rid of the notion that we have storage boxes in our head. (we are not warehouses.)-CRAIK AND LOCKHART Think of memory in terms of the procedures we use to examine stimuli. Two types of rehearseal Maintenance rehaeasal: repetitiof the same type of precessing. Has no effect on episodic meory. Elaborative rehearseal: processing that moves from shallow to deepr levels and thereby improves episodic memory. Difference between memorizing your shopping list and someone else’s shopping list. LEVELS OF PROCESSING Acording to the levels of precessing how can you explain the recency affect? Primacy effect? The first few items and the last few items get more rehearsed(more elaborative and semantic ). What is the levels of processing equivaltnt to short term memory –maintenance reheaseal. TH *******************************SEPTEMBER 28 ************** SERIAL POSITION curve-caused type of processing allocated to different items Being intoxicated and learn something, you can remember it if you’re intoxicated again. Transfer appropriate processing- TAP LoP focused only on what happens at time of study TAP- forcuses on the relelationship b/w study and test phase processing TAP design Semantic-how is sounds? What do you think sounds like? Rhyme-How does it literally sound like? What does it rhyme with? PHysicsal enviroment effects People remember better when you’re in the same environment as the one you studied in. Memoriizng shit underwater and you’re tested on land-bad. Memoring on land-tested on land-good. The environment matters only when it is very distinct Like environments, people remember better (ex: studied on land, tested on land; studied when sad, tested when sad) Consistent with your understanding of TAP, what activites are most critical for achieving a high score on a test? - stay in the same mood/environment (has to be pretty distinct) - cold temperatures seem to get in the way of your thinking - studying the same way you’re going to be tested (practice) -  study doing questions rather than straight memorizing - concrete goals of what you understand/want to learn - physiological state matters - psychological preparedness rd *********October 3 *********** Goals of research Measurement and description Measurement-the act of making observations; the assignment of numbers or labels to events, objects, behaviors Understanding & description -cause-effect relationships are special Manipulation andcontrol Basic vs applied research Ways of knowing Nativism The view that certain skills or ablitiees are native or hiard wired into the brain at bitth (nature) Rationalism The view that the exercise of reason (rather than experience, authority, or spirtual revelation) provides the primary basis for knowledge Authoritariansism The view that knowledge comes from thse in a position of authority Empiricism The view that our knowledge comes from experience..that he rain has inborn capabilities for learning from the environment but does not include innate knowledge/beliefs Variants of empiricism Naïve realism Seeing is believing The believe/conviction that we see the world precisely as it is Scientism The view that the scienctificc method is the only route to valid and reliable knowledge Other problems with the experience way of knowing Experience based knowledge is biased by Hindsight—The tendency to exaggerate our ability to have forsenn how something would turn out after learning how has turned out. Overconfidence—The tendency to overestime the accuracy of our current knowledge Tendency to focus on confirmation Willingness to be satisfied by insufficient/limited data Availability Heuristic-The tendency to judge the probability of an event by the ease with which it comes to mind The scientific Method: Definition An approach to making observations(collecting data), under the guidance of
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