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Psychology Final Notes.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 101
Peter Graf

Jacky Tang October 16 2012 Psyc 101 Psychology 101 Midterm Notes Chapter 1 The Evolution of Psychology 11 How Psychology Developed Philosophy Physiology and PsychologyDebated whether knowledge is inborn nativism or gained through experience empiricism Contributions of Wundt and Hall1879 Wundt established first formal laboratory for research in psychologyCampaigned to make psychology an independent discipline Primary focus was consciousness awareness of immediate experienceInvestigation of mind via scientific methodStanley Hall contributed to rapid growth of psychology in the US Structuralism vs FunctionalismStructuralismanalyze consciousness into basic elements and how theyre relatedIntrospectionsystematic selfobservation of ones own conscious experienceFunctionalismanalyze function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structureArgued structuralism only studied static parts of the stream of consciousness WatsonBehaviourismBehaviousrismScientific Psychology should study only observable behaviourAbandon study of consciouness and only focus on observable behaviourso Science rests on verifiabilityo Argued for Nurture instead of Nature o StimulusResponse approach FreudThe UnconsciousPsychoanalytic TheoryExplain personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on the unconscious Unconsciousthoughts memories desires that are below conscious awareness Skinner Questions Free Will as BehaviourismOrganisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomesBehaviour can be explained biologically without resorting to physiology The Humanists RevoltHumanismEmphasizes unique qualities of humans ie freedom and personal growth Psychology Comes of Age as a ProfessionApplied PsychologyEveryday practical problemsClinical PsychologyDiagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disordersRenewed Interest in Cognition and PhysiologyCognitionMental processes involved in acquiring knowledge involves consciousCongnition vs behaviour studiesEvolutionary PsychologyEvolutionary PsychologyExamines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generationsNatural selection favours behaviours that enhance organisms reproductive success The Positive Psychology MovementPositive psychologyUnderstand positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence 12 Psychology Today Major Research Areas Area Focus of Research Developmental Psyc Human development across the life span Social Psyc Interpersonal behaviour and role of social forces in governing behaviour Experimental Psyc Sensation perception learning conditioning motivation emotion Physiological Psyc Genetic factors on behaviour and the role of the brainnervous system Cognitive Psyc Memory reasoning info processing language problem solving decisions Personality Individuals consistency in behaviour Psychometrics Measurement of behaviour and capacitiesMajor Professional Specialties Specialty Focus of Professional Practice Clinical Psyc Evaluation diagnosis and treatment of individuals of psychological disorders Counselling Psyc Similar to clinical but focus on assistance to people struggling with everyday problems Educational Psyc Improve curriculum design and other aspects of the educational process Industrial Psyc Human resource departments for staff in world of business and industry 13 Seven Key Themes 1 Psychology is empirical 2 Psychology is theoretically diverse 3 Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context 4 Behaviour is determined by multiple causes 5 Behaviour is shaped by cultural heritage 6 Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour7 Peoples experience of the world is highly subjectiveChapter 2 The Research Enterprise in Psychology 21 Scientific Approach to Behaviour Goals of Scientific Enterprise
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