Psych Ch.13 Sociality

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PSYC 101
Bobby Fokidis

Ch.13 Notes Social psychology- the study of the causes and consequences of sociality Social Behavior 1. Aggression- behavior whose purpose is to harm others - Do it as a way of getting the resources they want - Frustration-aggression hypothesis suggests that animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated o I.e. The robber wants the money (goal) but the teller ahs it all locked up (frustration), so the robber threatens the teller with a gun (aggression) - Hypothesis is considered incomplete because psychologists suggests that it is all part of the “negative effect” that increases aggression o I.e. when rats are electrocuted and put in cage, they attack anything - Both biology and culture plats a role in determining if and when people will aggress o Biology:  Single best predictor is gender (I.e. crime are most perpetrated by young men) due to the level of testosterone because it promotes aggression by making people feel concerned with their status, power, and confident in their ability to prevail  Both sexes equal in verbal aggression  Brought on by a challenge to their integrity  Instrumental aggression: Hurting another to accomplish another (non-aggressive) goal (I.e. A mother spanks a child to discourage him from repeating a tantrum)  Feelings of anger similar  Women more prone to jealousy in relationships  Women are more likely to use physical aggression against partners  Girls use more indirect aggression: attempt to hurt another without obvious face-to-face conflict (I.e. spreading a rumor that your ex-romantic partner has a STD) o Culture  Aggressive behavior is more common in individualist (independent) than in collectivist (interdependent) cultures 2. Cooperation: behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit - Cooperation is risky and involves trust - Prisoner’s Dilemma mirrors the risks and benefits of cooperation - How to minimize risk? 1. Spot a cheater 2. React strongly when detecting someone cheating (Ultimatum game: divide prize evenly or have no prize at all) - A group is a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others. One characteristic of a group is that their members are positively prejudiced toward other members and tend to discriminate in their favor o Produces favoritism: “I’m one of us and not one of them”- group polarization o Social contagion o Social identity o Amplification of aggressive tendencies - Exclusion from participating in group activites activate area of the brain associated with experiencing pain anterior cingulate cortex and right ventral prefrontal cortex (pain relief to diminish the feeling) - Why do we behave badly in groups? o De-individualization occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values o Diffusion of responsibility occurs when individuals feel diminished responsibility for
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