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Psychology Final Review.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 101
Peter Graf

Psychology 101 Final ReviewWhat is psychology The scientific study of behavior and the mind and their neurobiological basesWord composed of psych spirit or soullogia study ofstudy of the spirit or soulCHAPTER 1 Evolution of PsychologyAnthropocentrism the idea that people are the most important thing in the universeDeterminism the idea that every event including human thoughtbehavior is determined by an unbroken chain of preceding eventsWundt established first formal laboratory for research in psychologycampaigned to make psychology an independent disciplineprimary focus was consciousness investigation of the mind via scientific method Hall contributed to rapid growth of psychology in the USStructuralism analyze consciousness into its basic elementsinvestigate how theyre relatedgravitated to a labDepended on method of introspection careful systematic observation of ones own conscious experienceFunctionalism analyze functionpurpose of consciousness rather than its structureLooked at natural selection Argued that consciousness is a continuing flow of thoughts stream of consciousnessNot in lab fostered applied psychBehaviorism Watson scientific psychology should only study observable behavior and should abandon the study of consciousness focused research on lab animalsnature vs nurturebehavior is governed primarily by environment not hereditaryFreud the unconscious found the unconscious thoughts memories and desires that are below conscious awareness but greatly affect behaviorPsychoanalytic Theoryexplains personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on the unconsciousSkinner organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and do not repeat ones that lead to negative outcomes free will is an illusion people are controlled by their environmentHumanism RogersMaslow emphasizes the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growthhumans are different than animalshumans strive for growth animals do notDonald Hebb introduced cell assembly in the brainstudied physiological processesAppliedProfessional Psychology Applied Psycheveryday practical problemsClinical Psychdiagnosistreatment of psychological problems and disordersHow did historical events contribute to psychology as a profession WW2 treat soldiers suffering from traumaCognitive Processes cognitionmental processes involved in acquiring knowledge involves conscious Reasoning problemsolving decisionmaking mental imageryPhysiological Processes visual signals electrical stimulation of the brainEvolutionary Psychologyexamines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations natural selection favors behaviors that enhance organisms reproductive successPositive Psychologyunderstand positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existenceResearch AreaFocusDevelopmental Human development across life spanPsychologySocial PsychologyInterpersonal behaviorrole of social forces governing behaviorExperimental PsychologySensation perception learning conditioning motivation emotionPhysiological PsychologyGenetic factors on behaviorrole of the brainnervous systemCognitive PsychologyMemory reasoning info processing language problemsolving decisionsPersonalityIndividuals consistency in behaviorPsychometricsMeasurement of behaviorcapacitiesProfessional SpecialtyFocusClinical PsychologyEvaluation diagnosistreatment of psychological disordersCounselling PsychologySimilar to clinical but focuses on assisting people struggling with everyday problemsEducational PsychologyImprove curriculum designother aspects of educational processIndustrial PsychologyHuman resource departments for staff in world of businessindustrySeven Key Themes in Psychology1 Psychology is empirical based on observation rather than common sensetradition2 Psychology is theoretically diverse many competing points of view3 Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context issuesvalues in society influence psych evolution vice versa4 Behavior is determined by multiple causes interfering factors5 Behavior shaped by cultural heritage culture is humanmade part of environment6 Heredityenvironment jointly influence behavior individuals bornmade7 Peoples experience of the world is highly subjective people see what they want to seeexpect to seeSQ3R Method survey question read recitereview Promotes effective readingCHAPTER 2 Research Enterprise in Psychology Psychologists share 3 interrelated goals 1 MeasurementDescription2 UnderstandingPrediction3 ApplicationControlHypothesistentative statement about the relationship between 2 or more variables measureable conditions controlled in a studyTheorya system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations must be testabletheories are always subject to revisionResearchconduct study to test hypothesis therefore increases or decreases confidence in theory
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