Psych Ch.5 Notes .docx

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PSYC 101
Bobby Fokidis

Chapter 5- Consciousness Mysteries: 1. Problem of other minds- fundamental difficulty we have n perceiving the consciousness of others  People judge minds according to the capacity for experience (ability to feel pain, pleasure, etc.) and the capacity for agency (ability for self control, planning, memory, or thought) 2. Mind/body problem: the issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body  Rene Descartes observation of pineal gland (consciousness)  Brain activities precede the activities of the conscious mind Properties: 1. Intentionality: quality of being directed toward an object 2. Unity: resistance to division (attend more than one thing at a time) 3. Selectivity: capacity to include some objects but not others  Dichotic listening: in which people wearing headphones are presented with different messages in each ear  Consciousness filters out some information but can also tune in other information  Cocktail party phenomenon: people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby 4. Transience: tendency to change States of awareness: - Minimal consciousness: consciousness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior o Ex. Head turns toward light when sun comes through window - Full consciousness: being aware; know and are able to report your mental state o Ex. Thinking about the fact that you are thinking about things - Self consciousness: the person’s attention is drawn to the self as an object o Ex. When embarrassed, evaluate yourself and notice your shortcomings Levels of awareness: 1. Top- controlled processes require attention (and interfere with other functions) 2. Middle- automatic processes require minimal attention (such as riding your bike) 3. Lowest- minimal or no awareness of the environment - One way to know what’s on ppl’s minds: researches call on them to think aloud o Systematic approach: experience sampling techniques: are asked to report their conscious experiences at particular time o People worry about one’s current concerns o Connect to skin conduction level (SCL) measured to assess peoples emotional response o During daydream when one is not busy, there is still widespread patter of activation in many areas of the brain- default network - Mental control is hard to use and causes “rebound effect of thought suppression”; ironic effects tend to occur when one is distracted or under stress- “ironic processes of mental control” Unconsciousness: - Sigmund Freud described dynamic unconscious (ex. Destructive urges aimed at a helpless infant, kept secret) - Unconscious is a force to be held in check by repression because without it, we may act on animal urge/impulse Cognitive Unconsciousness: - When person’s thought or behavior is changed by exposure to information outside of consciousness- happens in subliminal perception (degree of influence not very large) - Is at work when subliminal perception and unconscious decision processes influence thought or behavior without the person’s awareness Sleep: - Dreams- “altered state of consciousness”: changes in thinking - Falling asleep with wandering thoughts (hypnagogic state) experience a hypnic jerk- sudden quiver or sensation of droppingmind goes away entirely dreams come post sleep consciousness (hypnopompic state) - Circadian Rhythms: rhythmic variation in behavior o One cycle~24 hrs (eg. Sleep-waking cycle) o Light as an external cue o Some rhythms are endogenous suggesting the existence of an internal (biological) clock- 25.1 hrs - Biological clocks: structures that regulate biological rhythms o Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in hypothalamus o Pineal Gland- home of consciousness (melatonin) - EEG electroencephalograph can be used to assess the physiological changes during sleep episodes o High frequency activity/alertness: beta waves; low-frequency activity/relaxation: alpha waves o Largest change in EEG occur in sleep o Changes in electrical potentials of neurons recorded as line
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