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PSYC 102 Studies and Theories Final.docx

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PSYC 102
Toni Schmader

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PSYC 102 Studies and Theories Final 02/04/2013 21:31:00 Social Psychology Auto kinetic effect study (Sherif, 1935)  Is a phenomenon of visual perception in which a stationary, small point of light in an otherwise dark or featureless environment appears to move Line judgment study (Asch, 1951)  Conformity experiments  A subject was exposed to three lines and supposed to compare them to an original line, and say which line is the same length as the standard one  5 actors would give wrongs answers, which made the subject unsure about their answer, and more then one third would conform to the actors wrong answer. Milgram’s classic Obedience Studies (1962)  Electroshock study o A subjects is being put in a fake teacher role, they are supposed to ask a student question and if they answer the question wrong, trigger an electroshock o The subjects is being pushed to continue by an experiment even when the voltage gets higher every time the switch is hit, even when the student would seem unresponsive o Over 60 percent complied fully to the experiment to the last switch  In later experiments Milgram discovers that obedience was highest: o The person giving the orders was close at hand and was perceived to be a legitimate authority figure o The authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution o The victim was depersonalized or a at distant, even in another room o There were mo role models of defiance  Birkenhead drill o To calm and give priority to passengers, soldiers were ordered to line up on deck while their ship sank Bystander Effect (Darley & Batson, 1968)  We will only help if the situation enables us to notice the incident, then to interpret it as an emergency, and finally assume responsibility for helping  At each step the presence of others can turns us ways from the path that leads to helping  Observation of behaviours in thousands of such situations shows that the best odds of our helping someone occur when: o The person appears to need and deserve help o The person is in some way similar with us o The person is a woman o We have just observed someone else being helpful o We are not in a hurry o We are in a small town or rural area o We are feeling guilty o We are focused on others and not reoccupied o We are in a good mood Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957)  Guard turn into abusers; doubters into believers  When realise that our actions and attitudes to coincide we develop tension, to relieve the tension we often bring our attitudes into line with our actions, cognitive dissonance. Peg-turning study (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959)  In Festinger and Carlsmith's classic 1959 experiment, students were asked to spend an hour on boring and tedious tasks (e.g., turning pegs a quarter turn, over and over again).  The tasks were designed to generate a strong, negative attitude.  Once the subjects had done this, the experimenters asked some of them to do a simple favour. They were asked to talk to another subject and persuade the impostor that the tasks were interesting and engaging.  Some participants were paid $20 this favour, another group was paid $1 and a control group was not asked to perform the favour.  When asked to rate the boring tasks at the conclusion of the study (not in the presence of the other "subject"), those in the $1 group rated them more positively than those in the $20 and control groups. Which was seen as evidence for cognitive dissonance. When paid only $1, students were forced to internalize the attitude they were induced to express, because they had no other justification. Cultural differences in the self (Markus & Kitamaya, 1991)  Kityama: o The fundamental attribution error appears more often in some culture than in others o Individualistic wes
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