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PSYC 102 Slide Notes Final.docx

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PSYC 102
Toni Schmader

PSYC 102 Slide Notes Final 30/03/2013 16:06:00 - W10-SocialPsychology1 – Classic examples of social influence:  Conformity  Obedience  Helping Conformity  Why do we conform o Informal influence  Desire for certainty/accuracy o Normative social influence  Desire to fit in & be liked Auto kinetic effect study (Sherif, 1935) Line judgment study (Asch, 1951)  Which lines of the three is equa in length to the standard line?  Results o 75% conformed on a least one trial o 50% conformed on half of the trials or more o 25% never conformed Public vs. Private Conformity  Informal influence – private conformity o Attitude & behaviour change  Normative influence – public conformity o Only behaviour changes o 1.5% conform if responses were private Obedience  Milgram‟s classic Obedience Studies (1962) - W08-SocialPsychology2 - Bystander Effect (Darley & Batson, 1968)  People less likely to help when more people are present  Decision of helping during emergency o 1. Notice the event o 2. Interpret as emergency  pluralistic ignorance (no one else is doing anything so its not an emergency) o 3. Assume responsibility  Diffusion of responsibility (someone else has probably already called for help) o 4. Know what to do o 5. Implement decision Strangers to ourselves (Wilson, 2002)  We lack insight into our own behaviour o We overestimate some causes..  Movie distraction study  And underestimate others o Helping studies  We fail to predict how we will feel o The dorm study (Dunn, Wilson & Gilbert, 2003)  Errors of affective forecasting  College students predict how dorm will affect happiness  Some assigned to desirable some to undesirable dorms  1 year later, happiness is measured Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957)  (justifying our behaviour)  when attitude and behaviour don‟t match, people feel a negative arousal that they want to reduce  Solutions: o Change behaviour to match attitude o Change attitude to justify behaviour o Create new beliefs to justify the behaviour o Self-affirm o Trivialization  Changing attitudes to reduce dissonance o Peg-turning study (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959)  Sufficient justification for lie: 20$  Insufficient justification for lie: 1$  When justification for discrepancy is insufficient, attitudes change to align with behaviour - W08-SocialPsychology3 – Other examples of cognitive dissonance  Making difficult decisions o We derogate what we didn‟t choose  Justifying our efforts o We come to value what we struggle for  Reminders of hypocrisy o Prompt behaviours to affirm our values  Core motivation to maintain consistency in self  But, this motivation stronger in western, individualistic cultures Cultural differences in the self (Markus & Kitamaya, 1991)  Western societies o Children develop an independent self  Bounded from others  Stable entity  Self-enhancement  Eastern societies o Children develop interdependent self  Connected to others  Context dependant  Self-criticism  Cultural differences in dissonance o Central question;  If dissonance arises from threat to self as an independent entity  Would dissonance be found in collectivist cultures o Recent evidence;  No– if focused on conflict with their own standards  Yes – if examine conflict with what others think  Menu Choice Study (Hoshino-Brown, 2005) o Participants choose and rate menu items for:  Self preferences  Friend preferences o Choose coupon for 5 thand 6 thranked item o How much does their rating now change Social Perception  Influences of social perception o Ways in which we are accurate  Perceiving personalities o Ways in which we are inaccurate  Errors in knowing why people do what they do  Stereotypes can bias judgement Perceiving people accurately  Thin-slicing o Ware pretty good at judging personality based on very little information o Teacher effectiveness perceived n 2 sec o We leave cues to who we are  By our appearance  In our living spaces  On our websites  In our music preferences Goslings research on perceiving personality from context  Analysed: The big five o Open-mindedness o Conscientiousness o Extraversion o Agreeableness o Neuroticism Fundamental attribution error (Ross, 1970s)  When interpreting what others do, we tend to ignore the effect of the situation and prefer a dispositional explanation  Games show study (Ross, Amabile & Steinmetz, 1977) o Questioner – make up hard questions o Constant – try to answer them o Observer - audience o The rating of general knowledge was measured - W11-SocialPsych4 – Fundamental attribution error (Ross, 1970s)  When interpreting what other d, we tend to ignore the effect of the situation and prefer a dispositional explanation o Game show study  Cultural differences in error o Western/individualistic culture  Focus on individual & central target o Eastern/collectivist cultures  More attention to surrounding context  As a result, FAE is weaker Stereotypes  Schemas about groups of people o Explicit beliefs o Implicit associations  The implicit association test (IAT) o Measure strength of association between concepts  For example: o Men and women are both gender bias o The biases develop early  Stereotypes foster confirmation biases… o Greater attention and memory for stereotype consisted behaviour o Passing the story study(Allport and Postman)  …Then can elicit self-fulfilling prophecies o perceiver‟s behaviour induces another person to behave in way that confirms theory expectations o interview studies (word, zanna & copper)  Stereotype create self-fulfilling prophecies o Stereotypical perfections of more women -> Dominant & flirtatious -> Perform poorly on engineering test Is stereotyping inevitable?  No.. Dual Process Model of Prejudice (devine, 1989) o Activation of stereotype is automatic o Influence on behaviour can be controlled if..  Motivated to avoid bias  Aware of possible boas  Have cognitive capacity  Circadian rhythm study (Bodenhausen, 1990) o We are more likely to stereotype when we are tired - W09-Personality1 – How to describe Personality?  A historical perspective o Freud‟s psychoanalytic theory  A contemporary perspective o The big give Psychoanalytic Theory (Sigmund Freud)  Psychoanalysis is a theory of… o Psychopathology  Abnormal behaviour o Psychotherapy  Psychological treatment o Personality  Normal behaviour Structure of Personality  Unconscious o ID: Instincts at birth  Pleasure principle  Conscious + Preconscious o EGO: conscious awareness & regulation by 6 mo  Reality principle  Conscious + Preconscious + Unconscious o Superego: moral centre  Internalizes rules by 5-6 years Dynamic Nature of Personality  Intrapsychic conflict: o Within the ID o Between id, ego, superego  Possible resolutions o Directly express drive o Redirect it using defence mechanisms:  Unconscious strategies used by ego Defence Mechanism (Anna Freud, 1930‟s)  Repression – Anxiety arousing reactions barred from consciousness  Denial – Anxiety-arousing perceptions barred from consciousness  Regression – Return to earlier stage of development  Displacement – Direct instinct behaviour at different object  Projection – seeing negative instincts in others  Sublimation – Redirecting energy into acceptable activity Development of personality according to freud  Personality develops by ge 5  Erogenous zones o Bodily source of instinct energy o Location shifts during stages of development  Fixations o If need is not met or is overindulged, energy is fixated at that stage creating personality Psychosexual stages  Oral Stage (0-1) o Oral Fixations: optimism/pessimism, trust/mistrust  Anal stage (1-3) o Anal fixations: discorganized/neat, defiant/conforming  Phallic stage (3-5) o Oedipal complex /electra complex o Fixation: competitive (male), seductive/naïve (female)  Latency Stage (5-puperty) o Sexuality is repressed, focus on school/friends  Genital Stage (puberty on) o Sexual feelings re-emerge - W09-Personality 2 Guest Lecture – Traits  Personality traits o Intorvert  Physical trais o Tall o Blond o Fat Characteristics of People  Internal: trait comes from biological and psychological forces within the person  Stable: Trait influences thoughts, feelings and behaviours in a relatively consistent manner  Two forms of stability o Contextual stability: People will show similar responses across different social contexts  For example:  Introverts act quiet and reserved in the majority of situations they encounter  Introverted when studying  Introverted at a party  It‟s a relative o Temporal stability: People will show similar pattern of behaviour at all ages Where do traits come from  Lexical hypothesis o Languages will evolve to include terms describing personality traits most important to people‟s lives o Predictions  Synonym frequency: important traits will have many words to describe them  Universality: important traits will have words that describe them in many languages The big five  The big five o Open-mindedness  Artistic  Curious  Cultured  Imaginative  Refined  High: paranormal experience  Low: political conservatism o Conscientiousness  Conventional  Cautious  Industrious  Orderly  Responsive  High: success in school and employment  Low:
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