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[PSYC 217] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (21 pages long!)Premium

21 pages186 viewsFall 2016

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 217
Professor
Benjamin Cheung
Study Guide
Midterm

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UBC
PSYC 217
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Claims are not supported by any published, peer-reviewed, empirical evidence.
Different ways of knowing
○ Scentific
Reply on empirical evidences
■ Logic
A series of argument
Isn’t data driven
Series of conclusion following the rules of logical thinking
● Pros
Leads to internally consistent reasoning and decisions and
lines of thinking
Easy to analyse and critique because your process of
thinking are laid out
● Cons
Can go wrong
You might based your thinking on incorrect information,
logical fallacies
What may be logically consistent may not reflect the
situation in the world
○ Unscientific
Non-data driven
Not rely on empirical evidences
■ Experience
Rely on personal experience to make decisions
Can smoking kill?
There’re exception
● Pros
If your personal experience represents the situation
● Cons
Not sure if your experience is representative
Cannot account for alternative explanations
Folk wisdom/common sense
Everyone should already know
an explanation for every situation
● Pros
Short, mutually understood way of communicating more
complicated idea
Explanation for every situation
Opposite attracts;
● Cons
Contradictory, rendering them meaningless
out of sight, out of mind vs.
Cannot be refuted, falsified
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■ Authority
Knowledge based on information from “credible other”
People rely on authority all the time
● Pros
Minimises the time to acquire knowledge
People of authority have legitimate credentials to be
considered authority
● Cons
Could be wrong sometimes
Doctor who didn’t believe in germs theory
Authority may be due to perceived cues of credibility
Popularity, etc
Intuition
Unquestioning acceptance of one’s judgement
● Cons
Difficult for other person to analyse or critique
I believe the team is gonna win today, but you can’t
critique about it because you too use intuition to
know I am wrong
Subject to prejudices and misconceptions
● Pros
Easily assess one’s knowledge
Allows us to understand values that are important to us
Affected by one’s value
Logic can be really close to experience
Involved in many different way of thinking at the same time
Critical thinking and science
Common language and set of tools to guide and encourage critical
thinking
Not the only way of knowing
A way by which all scientists abide
Psychological science relies on the scientific method, empirical, data-
driven
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