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psyc 308 CHAPTER 7 d.docx

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PSYC 308
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CHAPTER 7 EMOTIONCHARACTERIZING EMOTIONDIFFERENTIATING EMOTIONS FROM OTHER FEELINGSHow do emotions differ from moods and emotional disordersEmotionsbriefspecificpsychologicalandphysiologicalresponsesthathelphumanmeetsocialgoals1EmotionsarebriefTheylastforsecondsorminutesnothoursordaysasmoodsanddisordersFacialexpressionsofemotiontypicallylastbetween1and5secondsManyofthephysiologicalresponsesthataccompanyemotionsweatypalmsblushgoosebumpslastdozensofsecondsorminutesMoodsweexperiencefeelirritableorbluelastforhoursandevendaysWhileemotionaldisordersdepressionlastforweeksormonths2EmotionsarespecificWefeelemotionsaboutspecificpeopleandeventsPhilosopherscallfocusofanemotionalexperienceitsintentionalobjectWhenyoureangryyouhaveclearsenseofwhatyoureangryaboutIncontrastwhenyoureinirritablemooditsnotsoobviouswhyyoufeelthewayyoudoandtheintentionalobjectmaynotbeclear3EmotionstypicallyhelpindividualswiththeirsocialgoalsEmotionsmotivatepeopletoactinspecificwaysthatpromoteimportantrelationshipsExangermotivatespeopletoredressinjusticeButnoteveryepisodeofemotionsisbeneficialExsomeofourangermayproducemaladaptiveoutcomesIngeneralemotionsmotivategoaldirectedbehaviorthathelpsusnavigateoursocialenvironmentTHE COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONSEmotions involve many componentsAncient physiological responses shared by all mammals fightorflightInclude more cognitive factors rooted in languageAppraisal processesthe ways we evaluate events and objects in our environment according to their relation to our current goalsCorerelational themesdistinct themes such as danger or offense or fairness that define the essential meaning for each emotion similar across culturesFor example appraisals of loss triggers sadness violation of rights triggers anger expressions of affection triggers love and undeserved suffering triggers compassionPrimary appraisal stagean initial automatic positive or negative evaluation of ongoing events based on whether they are congruent or incongruent with our goalsAppraisals whether the event is consistent or inconsistent with the persons goals gives rise to general pleasant or unpleasant feelingsThe more automatic appraisals involve the amygdala and are triggered by stimuli faces snakes soundsSecondary appraisal stagea subsequent evaluation in which we determine why we feel the way we do about an event possible ways of responding to event and future consequences of different courses of actionTransform initial pleasant or unpleasant feelings into more specific emotions angerMore specific complex appraisals whos responsible for event is it consistent with social norms and how fair it isoAppraisal processes get emotions going Once under way emotions involve many different responses We express emotions with facial expressions voice posture physical touch and in language art poetry and music which give shape to our conscious experience of emotionoWhen feeling different emotions we see our lives and world through emotiontinted lens selectively perceiving emotioncongruent events in our current environment and recalling emotionrelated episodes from pastoEmotions involve activation in specific regions of brain orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala physiological responses in body and neurotransmitters dopamine or oxytocinUNIVERSALITY AND CULTURAL SPECIFICITY OF EMOTIONAn evolutionary approach assumes that emotions are biologically based adaptations that increase the likelihood that our genes will be passed on to the next generationEmotions such as fear enable adaptive responses to threats to survival while love compassion and jealousy help form and maintain reproductive relationshipsMany components of emotion face voice physiological response enable adaptive response to threats and gene replication opportunities faced by all humansBy implication these components of emotion face expression should be universalCultural approach assumes that emotions are strongly influenced by selfconstruals values roles institutions and socialization practices and that these vary in different culturesAs a result people in different cultures should express their emotions in different waysDARWIN AND EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIONIn Darwins time creationists held that God had given humans special facial muscles that allowed them to express uniquely human sentiments emotions like love that are unknown to lower species The clear implication is that human emotional expression differs dramatically from the emotional expression of other speciesPrinciple of serviceable habitsCharles Darwins thesis that emotional expressions are remnants of fullblown behaviors that helped our primate and mammalian predecessors meet important goals in the pastFor example all the observable signs of anger furrowed brow and teeth display are vestiges of threat displays and attack behavior observed in our mammalian relatives that were useful in conflicts and aggressive encountersDarwins analysis generated 3 hypotheses about emotional expression1The prediction of universality all humans have same 3040 facial muscles2The similarity between our emotional expression and that of our primate and mammalian ancestors share an evolutionary history3Blind individuals lacking the rich visual input a culture provides in how to display emotion will still show similar expressions as sighted individuals because the tendency to express emotions in particular ways is encoded in the human nervous systemTHE UNIVERSALITY OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONCharles Darwinnot only did he formulate the theory of evolution he also studied emotional expressions in nonhuman species and humans and sought to document that human emotional expressions have their parallels in other species and are universal to people of all culturesScientific Method Universality of Facial Expressions Ekman SorensonFriesenHypothesis Facial expressions of emotions have been shaped by evolution and are universalResearch Method1American actors were photographed showing expressions that conveyed emotions such as happiness sadness disgust anger and fear2These photographs were then shown to members of the isolated and preliterate Fore tribe in New Guinea3All participants who saw the photos were asked to pick the emotion story that matched each photograph4Then the procedure was reversed New Guinea tribesmen were photographed portraying various facial expressions and American college students were then asked to pick the emotion label that matched each paragraphResults Fore and American participants reliably judged the emotion expressed in the photos at much higher levels of accuracy than expected by chanceConclusion Facial expressions of emotion are universal
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