SOCI 240 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Symbolic Interactionism, Reference Group, Self-Perception Theory

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Published on 8 Feb 2013
Midterm 2:
The following will be covered on midterm 2:
Sandstrom et al. Chapters 4, 5 and 6
Holstein et al. pages: 107-138, 161-176, 79-94, 204-226, 245-267, 341-380, 384-404, 419-427
PPT # 5, 6, 9, 8
Definition of Self
Self has a distinct meaning from the symbolic interactionist perspective
-Not the same as identity, actor, personality
-Self is an object of the actor’s own action
Self as a social Object
-Arises out of social interaction: individual sees herself as an object in
the environment through interaction with others
-View self indirectly from other’s point of view
Stages in the Development of Self:
1) Preparatory Stage: Mead
-Child imitates adult
-Imitation lacks meaning or symbolic understanding
-Social objects not yet defined or understood with words that have meaning to the child
2) Play Stage: Mead
-Occurs during language acquisition
-Label and define objects with words that have shared meaning
-Child takes the perspective of specific individuals(significant others) with whom he/she
identifies(usually parents)
-Only takes perspective of one significant other at a time
3) Game Stage: Mead
-Occurs around age 4-5
-Necessity of assuming perspective of several others simultaneously
-Knowing one’s position in relation to a complex set of others
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-Incorporate all significant others into one “generalized other”(them, society)
-Self becomes defined by the individual AND by them(internalization of society)
-Important for consistency in action
ex: playing house, seeing different perspectives such as mom, dad, brother, dog
Reference Groups: Shibutani
-Individual interacts with many different groups of individuals
-Have several reference group
-Significant others become a complex mixture of generalized others with separate social worlds
1. Self Communication
-actor talks to him/herself
2. Self Perception
Assessment of our own action
-Self is present in all situations we are in
-Cannot hide anything from yourself
ex: having another person follow you around 24/7
-The stable picture we have of ourselves
-Not fixed but stable overtime and situations
-Influences what we do in every situation
-Can be changed
-Often called self-esteem
-Appraisal of ourselves
-Results from social interaction
-The name we call ourselves
-The social location of an individual- where one is situated in relation to others
-Identities are labels used by reference groups and significant others of the individual
-Three levels of identity are basic(age,sex), general(roles), independent(soccer player, dancer)
-Turner states core identities are ‘real selves’
3. Self Control:
-Able to control our own actions
-Social rules become the standards by which individuals control his or her actions
Thoughts on I and ME
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