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chapter 13 & 14.docx

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School
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1000U
Professor
Kimberly Clow
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 13 PERSONALITYpersonalityan individuals characteristic pattern of thinking feelingacting eg Sam Gamgees cheerful optimisticemotionally stable personality in Lord Of The Rings2 theories of personality o Sigmund Freuds psychoanalytic theory proposed that childhood sexualityunconscious motivations influence personality o humanistic approach focused on our inner capacities for growthfulfillment Exploring the Unconsciousfree associationmethod of exploring unconscious in which a person relaxessays whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassingpsychoanalysisFreuds theory that attributes thoughtsactions to unconscious motivesconflicts techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to exposeinterpret unconscious tensionsFreuds theoryconscious mindunconscious mind is like an iceberg Former is abovelatter which constitutes a large part is hiddenunconscious minda reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts wishes feelingsmemoriessome of these thoughts are stored temporarilyin our preconscious area from where it can be retrieved to conscious areabut we repress a mass of unacceptable passionsthoughts because it would be too unsettling to acknowledgehe viewed jokes as expressions of repressed sexualaggressive tendencieshe viewed dreams as royal road to unconsciousnessmanifest contentremembered content of dreamslatent contentcensored expression of dreams unconscious wishes Personality StructureFreud proposed 3 interacting systems in personality o idcontains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexualaggressive drives The id operates on pleasure principle demanding immediate gratification eg new born infant crying out for satisfaction not caring for outside worlds conditions or people who use drugs smoke or drink because they want to party nownot think about future success or happiness o egolargely conscious executive part of personality that mediates among demands of id superegoreality The ego operates on reality principle satisfying ids desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain o superegopart of personality that represents internalized idealsprovides standards for judgement consciencefor future aspirations Around age 4 or 5 a child ego recognizes demands of newly emerging supergosuperego demands oppose ids so ego struggles to reconcile the twoit is personality executive mediating impulsive demands of id restraining demands of superego and reallife demands of external worldeg if Jane feels sexually attracted to John she may satisfy both id and superego by joining a volunteer organization that John attends regularly Personality DevelopmentFreud said personality forms during lifes first few yearspsychosexual stageschildhood stages or development oral anal phallic latency or genital during which according to Freud ids pleasureseeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zoneserogenous zonesdistinct pleasuresensitive areas of bodyFreud believed that during phallic stage boys seek genital stimulationthey develop both unconscious sexual desires for their motherjealousy and hatred for their father whom they consider a rival Freud called above collection of feelings Oedipus complexsome psychoanalysts in Freuds era believed that girls experienced a parallel Electra complexchildren eventually cope with these feelings by repressing themidentifying with trying to become like rival parent This is called identification process where childrens superego gains strength as they incorporate many of their parents values This is also known as gender identityconflicts unresolved during earlier psychosexual stages could surface as maladaptive behavior in adult yearsat any point in oral anal or phallic stages strong conflict could lock or fixate persons pleasureseeking energies in that stage eg a person who is fixated at oral stage may seek gratification by smoking Defense MechanismsEgo protects itself with defence mechanismstactics that reduce or redirect by distorting reality There are 7 of them o repressionbanishes anxietyarousing wishes from consciousness Repression underlies all other defense mechanisms o regressionallows us to retreat to an earlier more infantile stage of development eg facing anxious first day at school a child may regress to oral comfort of thumbsucking o reaction formationego unconsciously makes unacceptable impulses look like their opposites eg timidity becomes daring feelings of inadequacy become bravado o projection disguises threatening impulses by attribution them to others eg He doesnt trust me may be a projection of actual feeling I dont trust him or I dont trust myself
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