POL 2104 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Iris Marion Young, Political Philosophy, Polyarchy
SchoolUniversity of Ottawa
Course CodePOL 2104
ProfessorEmily Regan Wills
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Brandon Diamond - 5710000 POL2104 Midterm Study Sheet
KKV, "The Science in Social Science"-one of most read/assigned books in graduate political studies, intervention into field of political science at
particular moment and a broader contribution to research methodology. KKV believe all empirical research about social reality needs to follow
these core elements of scientific method.
Scientific Research: -does not have to be quantitative, no complete certainty, does not have to meet experimental standards. goal is inference,
procedures public, uncertain conclusions, content is method (what makes something science is how you do it, not what you do.).
Inference: make a claim beyond that data. can be descriptive(about nature or qualities) or causal (how or why it causes something)
Points: principles are fairly open and flexible, apply to huge range of research and concepts, been used to bludgeon a lot of "alternative"
Leverage: explaining a lot with little ; Parsimony: explanation with fewest moving pieces. ; Validity: do we know we are measuring right thing ;
Reliability: do we know we are getting "right" responses. ; Observable Implications: theory of what might be going on, figure out what we might
see if true.-All research can be scientific if meets guidelines, inference based on: empirical data, public methods, estimates of certainty. Attempt to
unify field of poli-sci and subject to "one logic", more consistent.
Hawkesworth, "Contending Conceptions of Science and Politics" -bible for interpretivism: beyond quant/qual division(frequently beyond poli-sci
as well), focuses on role of meaning in politics and social life. Positivism: contingent proposition is meaningful if it can be empirically verified.
(KKV). Critical Rationalism: Karl Popper, assumed identical to positivism. key point: falsification, second: testability
Post positivist/Pre Suppositionists: world makes sense through theories we have about it. coherence theory of truth: "world is richer than
theories devised to grasp it" central focus on: deliberation, argument and demonstrating ideas & facts.
"The Political" contestation: is sphere where people deliberate and contest about organization of human societies structured by social structures
and formal elements (institutions); highly unequal; contestation can be empirical and normative
Case Studies: "Forecasting 2103 German Elections": using numerous variables(unemployment rate, chancellor support) to try and accurately
forecast the outcome of European elections. "Arab Uprisings": looking at the use of policing/protection of spaces used in protest movements.
talk about how rural areas develop uprisings due to lack of policing which then travel towards and move into big cities creating large protests in
large public spaces.
Weber, "Politics as a Vocation"-founding fathers of sociology. Interpretive. Was a speech given to group of uni students during revolution in
Germany Jan. 1919. students supported communist revolutionaries and concerned how to act politically. for Weber: state is human community
that(successfully) claims monopoly on legitimate use of violence in given territory. modern state is a compulsory association that organizes
Lenin, "State and Revolution"-1917 during Russian Revolution, Lenin about to lead Bolsheviks in October Revolution, which would make him
ruler of Russia. meant as manifesto for fellow communists, guideline to development of Communist Politics. Lenin Says: state is "special
apparatus for coercion" "a special machine for suppression of one class by another...of the majority by a minority". state will wither away with
rise of communism, because it creates situation where people self govern at basic level, and state tools of repression not needed.
-Westphalia State System: "The Peace of Westphalia" series of treaties negotiated among major European kingdoms in 1648. first formal
acknowledgement of principle of state sovereignty (states should be independent without force to overrule), including non intervention in affairs
of states, self determination of people/citizenry of country, legal equality of all states. cornerstone of international state system.
O'Neil, "States"-- States are the dominant political unit in the world; the state as an institution developed b/c of European political processes, but
spread, through colonialism, to encompass the rest of the world.- Referring to the monopoly on violence - or even to the nature of the state as a
“compulsory organization of domination” (Weber) - He doesn’t explain the experience of the state, what people do in the state and how they feel
about it. State, Regime, Government- State: the legal entity, the thing with borders & a population - Regime: the system of rule & the major
elements of what makes up the human experience of being governed in the state - Government: who is actually doing the governing
- Institutional Definition of Politics: Politics is about formal political institutions
- Power Struggles/Realist Definition of Politics: Politics is about the will to power
- Pluralist Conception of Power: Politics is about groups competing & struggling for gain/to be heard
- Functionalist Definition of Politics: We should study the fundamental social institutions of a political system/all political systems
Key Elements of Stateness - Legitimacy: that the people who live inside the state accept that it is the state, The regime or government can lose
legitimacy while the state retains it - Capacity: the ability government to accomplish the tasks it sets itself, and to continue the tasks (if
applicable)-Teacher thinks capacity changes more from regime to regime, instead of government to government -Autonomy: the ability to act
without being constrained by non-state actors, whether domestic or foreign.
The Failed State Index - measures ability of state to accomplish tasks essential for stateness as defined, believing non-failed states are less likely
for conflict. ranks all world states in terms of level of failure, on scale from "alert" to "warning" to "stable" to "sustainable"
- Ranks all world states in terms of their level of failure, on a scale from “alert” (states most at risk of failure” to “warning” to “stability” to
sustainable. Social Indicators: Demographic Pressures, Group Grievance, Refugees & IDPs, Human flight & Brain Drain Economic Indicators:
Uneven Economic Development, Poverty & Economic Decline. Political & Military Indicators: State Legitimacy, Human Rights & Rule of Law,
Factionalized Elites, Public Services, Security Apparatus, External Intervention
Case Studies: "There is no Congo": Congo does not fit criteria for state: legitimacy, capacity, autonomy. and has numerous divided "states". our
current int. efforts to help are focused on capital as state when not the case. "Local State in India": not sure
Schmitter and Karl, "What Democracy Is (And Is Not)": “There is an understandable temptation to load too many expectations on this concept &
to imagine that by attaining democracy, a society will have resolved all of its political, social, economic, administrative, & cultural problems.”
“Modern political democracy is a system of governance in which rulers are held accountable for their actions in the public realm, by citizens,
acting indirectly through the competition & cooperation of their elected representatives.” system of governance: a set of rules of how the country
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