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Exam Answers-june 2010.docx

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Karen Kus

1. Define and discuss the significance on intensification 3 Steps of Intensification: Allen Johnson and Timothy Earle did a comparison  study on more than a dozen societies on the EVOLUTION OF HUMAN  SOCIETIES :­ ­­ It is a unitary process that has 3 sub­process in every human society: *population growth­ every human society has this­­if the population is higher  than what the area can support than resources will be depleted so cultures try to  control it by allow abortions, female infanticide etc  *Technology Development: it’s an adaptive strategy to solve new problems  such as food availability, shelter etc ­­eg. Green revolution­ from mexico to india to Pakistan= saved thousands of  lives  *Environmental constraint= when there are new solutions to new problems  there are even new problems ( eg. Unwater, uncontrollable, undesired effects on  the environment). Eg. Boats has caused many types of species in water to go  extinct  eg. Cod fish, Miskito Indians This will be in addition to the little blurb in the lecture note.  Intensification  o Allen Johnson & Timothy Earle: The evolution of human societies  § Human labour is being mobilized and organized continually  § Use of resources is being intensified  ∙ Why?: Inherent tendency for human population to grow; every society has  ways to cope with population growth  People have to make do with less when there are more people to deal with ­>  continuous need for technological developmento Gives more power and  control, but has environmental consequences; resource base will deplete rapidly  or will inhibit other adverse effects  o Technology is never a long­term solution, produces unintended and  unforeseen problems that must be dealt with down the road 2. Outline the principle forms of descent groups and identify their key functions descent groups are divided into two categories. • Unilineal- descent either through male or female. o Lineages- 6 to 8 generations, determine our social status, they are more corporate, we know the common ancestor, it can be patrilineal or matrilineal. Lineages give us land rights, they break off over time, o Clans- they are less corporate than lineages, are more dispersed, cannot specify a common ancestor, but use totem to say how they are related to one another, they look alike, talk and walk alike, they become more corporate in battle, practice general reciprocity o Phratries- are weaker in corportate, they consist of two or more clans which are considered a single unit, but remain separate. The common ancestor is not clear here. o Moieties- when the society is divided into two descent groups • Cognastic- can be bilaterial – descent through either male or female. Or it can Ambilineal- descent by one child choosing mothers side and the other child choosing fathers side. o Kindreds- a family group that is related to you because of one person, either related through consanguial or affinal kin. They come together during special occasions, can help you when the need arises. But once that specific person dies you have no relation to that kindred as well. 3. Discuss the relationship between religion and social organization According to Anthony F.C. Wallace, ‘religious cults’ can be organized into the following four categories: a. Individualistic cult: this is the simplest and most basic type. It consists of a set of rituals that are performed by one person for his or her own purposes. Ex. vision quests (considered a rite of passage in some Native American communities, these ceremonies are used to help find spiritual guidance and purpose) b. Shamanistic cult: this type involves the use of a ritual practitioner, and consists of rituals done on behalf of one or more clients. Examples of shamans include faith healers and palm readers. c. Communal cult: a set of rituals that members of the same religion participate in as group activities for the benefit of all involved in the ritual or even of the entire community of which they are a part. Example: The Hopi people were known to have made dolls called kachinas that represented relevant spirits, natural elements or deceased ancestors. The dolls were used in various ceremonies, and were later used as decorations in houses to serve as constant reminders of the ancient spirits. d. Ecclesiastical cult: this type is the most complex. It involves a set of rituals in which a religious specialist is charged with performing rituals for the benefit of an entire congregation ex: Roman Catholic cardinals are given the duty of electing a new pope (when appropriate) for the entire Catholic population. 4. Identify and discuss the principle forms of social control All societies have ways to maintain social order, they have ways of establishing equilibrium when disturbances happen. Some disturbances can be demographic factors- (over pop), economic factors- (lack of food) and lastly environmental factors (flood, tsunami). There are two principle forms of social control. • Informal mechanisms of social control- they are not backed up by force, they are not written but are important. o Socialization- teaching you rules and norms, how to behave in a society, family is the number on
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