lecture 21 - march 23.docx

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Peter Morrow

Lecture 21: Alberta Case Study: Traditional Plains Culture and the Modern Blackfoot March 23, 2009 Last lecture/film (lec 19?): Kanestake: Oka crisis in 1990s (don’t worry about names/dates) - Only 1 person died in crisis…Quebec police officer who died early on - Resolved peacefully at the end (still peaceful today but issues never resolved: Golf course never built but claims not resolved either)…Kanestake, Akwasasne, and Kanawake = active communities (all primarily Mohawk) Plains - Plains cover a number of political boundaries: o Canada: Alberta, Southern Saskatchewan and small part of Manitoba o US: Montana and North and South Dakota (just northern plains) o Very north = 2 major water systems: North Saskatchewan River and South Saskatchewan: start in Rockies and go east to drain in Hudson’s bay o Part of Rupert’s land - Mostly flat plains so humans have to have different adaptations Early Precontact in Plains (11,500-7,500 B.P) BP = ~1950…before current period - *humans = pedestrian hunters: chase after large animals on foot o Chasing plastasine mega-fauna: large mammals that are vestiges of the ice age (e.g, mammoths or mastadons)…massive furry creatures and hard to hunt o *spear thrower (adle adle?): spear point on a wooden handle that is thrown via extention handle = more force and accuracy…these adle adles = not just in Plains…found in other parts during this period o People migrated to the New world and went South…moved North as glaciers retreated - *11,000 years ago: indigenous horse driven to extinction by human hunters o Last time there was an indigenous species of horse on NA because humans ate it o Never rode horses...NA never had horses after that until EU came - *Bison (Buffalo): only large mammal to survive plastasine era/ice age o Humans (mainly) and environmental reasons led to extinction of other mammals o Now: bison not as plentiful as they used to be Middle Precontact (7,500–2,000 B.P) - *Buffalo “jumps”: pedestrian hunters scare buffalo herds over cliffs o Herds have thousands of animals and once you scare a few all of them panic and run over a cliff and into a “coole” (valley) o Ecological values…whole herd goes over and no way you need 1000s of carcasses - *Head-Smashed-In (Alberta): famous Buffalo jump site o Archaeological evidence to back up jumps: 100s of thousands of buffalo carcasses at bottom of cliff…some with pedestrian hunter tool marks on them Late Precontact (2,000 B.P – A.D. 1700) 2000 B.P = 0 A.D - *Buffalo “pounds”: fences built culminating in an apex with a circular area to contain buffalo o In the pound you can select which ones you want to kill = more control than buffalo “jumps” o Buffalo “jumps” still used in addition to pounds Postcontact (A.D. 1700-1876) - Can begin to identify specific groups - *Compare postcontact period in the east = 200 years earlier…took 200 years for EU to reach plains (Mikmah = contact in 1600): o Anthony Hendey: 1754..first EU to come to central Alberta…but EU goods = before - *Blackfoot Confederacy (all diff. alliances…all speak Blackfoot language): o *Blackfoot (Siksika) o *Blood (Kainai) o *Peigan (Pikuni) o Blackfoot = part of Algonquin language family…most Westerly part of Algonquin language family…spread to Alberta before EU arrived o First member = Blackfoot proper = Siksika o When saying Blackfoot = about whole confederacy unless specifically stating Siksika - Blackfoot territory = in between North and South Saskatchewan rivers in Alberta o Near Red deer/Edmonton region o Other groups around (Snake, Kutenai) = not around when treaties formed o *Cree = located in East (Manitoba) = middle men…took furs from west to East  Cree moved West over time to search for furs and were enemies of the Blackfoot - *1730s: adoption of the horse o Spaniards brought horses over from EU and settlers had them…some horses were stolen or purchased. o Spanish horses introduced in South and moved up over centuries - *pedestrian hunters  equestrian hunters o Ride horses and can hunt buffalo individually (more efficiency and speed) = allowed them to use bow & arrow o *First time Aboriginal people mo
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