Final Exam Study Guide with Answers.doc

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Communication, Culture and Technology
Elizabeth Peden

CCT 210 Final Exam Study Guide Part I: Short Definitions (4 x 5% = 20%) bystander/aggressor effect Both the bystander and aggressor effect are concerned with exposure to video game violence. The bystander effect occurs when the video game player becomes desensitized to the violence in the video game and less sympathetic with the victims in the video game. This is a result of extended exposure. The aggressor effect is when the gamer is exposed to a significant amount of violence through a video game resulting in a more aggressive behaviour. The US Armed Forces has actually embraced these effects and has invested several millions of dollars in a training/real life simulation video games in an effort to recruit more young adults. push/pull effect The push/pull effect is concerned with semiotics and advertising. In advertising the push effect is where the target audience is made more aware of an issue the promoted product is intended to solve. The pull effect refers to the target audience seeking out the product or service. The push/pull effect is applicable to almost any advertisement. The best example to further describe the push/pull effect would be Studio 5ive Mascara. This is a cosmetic make up product for men. Mascara for men is highly irregular based on the traditional societal norms. However, this company has effectively launched an advertisement where it uses the push/pull effect in order to sell its product. Studio 5ive uses the push effect in the advertisement by making the viewer more aware of a problem, but also respects the traditional representation of men in media by referring to sports in its catch phrase and by using a masculine male archetype model for the advertisement. These effects are strategic marketing ploys to promote a product while pulling the viewer in enough to seek the product out. syntagmatic/paradigmatic axis The syntagmatic and paradigmatic axes refer to the structural analysis of signs. According to Saussure signs are made up of two components: the signifier and the signified. The relationship between the two of these components creates a sign. The value of the sign is determined by the relation between the syntagmatic and paradigmatic. The syntagmatic axis is concerned with positioning, and considers combination, where the paradigmatic is concerned with substitution and functional contrats. Both the syntagmatic and paradigmatic axes provide context for a sign. The chart below shows the syntagmatic and paradigmatic axes in real use. disembodiment/reimbodiment Disembodiment refers to being so far removed from reality and immersed in technology that the mind and body can become detached. Rene Descartes explored dualism and the concept that there can be a separation between the body and the mind. He referred to this as Cartesian Dualism. With regard to the information age, lets look at video games as an example. Video game players experience a detachment of body and mind, where for example if they are injured or killed in a video game, they realize they have been harmed mentally but physically there is no consequence of the violence. Constant emersion in video games is causing a separation in the link between body and mind and further impacting emotion. Reimbodiment is related to retribalization, where people feel comfortable in tribes/groups where they share common interests, goals and objectives. Reimbodiment is more specifically concerned with trying to reconnect in a physical world with face to face communication according to Marshall McLuhan. In relation to the information age, this can be seen in online communities as these virtual worlds can provide users or members with emotional support and further foster a sense of belonging. It also creates room for discourse amongst members. Part II: Short Answer (4 x 10% = 40%) 1. When discussing the impact television has on its’ viewers, Danesi refers to “three main psychological effects.” Discuss each. According to Baudrillard, what has happened to the television viewer as a result? When discussing the impact television has on its viewers, Danesi refers to three main psychological effects. These are the mythologizing effect, the history fabrication effect and the cognitive compression effect. First, the mythologizing effect refers to the phenomenon, where TV creates personages that are perceived as mythic figures due to the way we see the, These personages are held in an electric space but seen in real time, thus causing them to seem larger than life. Also, the meanings attached to the characters we see on TV have certain attributes attached to them. Second, the history fabrication effect refers to how in TV, producers and writers can literally fabricate history by inducing the impression that an ordinary event is a momentous happening. Also, events showcased in the news on TV can be made to be more significant than they actually are. Lastly, the cognitive compression effect refers to the way viewrs receive information. The TV medium presents stories and information in allotted time frames. Due to the time constraints, information is compressed and delivered to the viewer. This allows the viewer little time to process and reflect upon the information received and the meanings contained in its messages. Baudillard not only agreed with Danesi’s observations regarding TV and its psychological effects on the viewer, but he also stated that because TV has changed the way we receive and understand messages it has induced an intellectual lethargy in society. 2. Fiske argues that, in television, codes are linked between producers, texts and audience and as a result, television events are already encoded for the viewer. Thus, what you see on television is never “raw.” Explain what Fiske means. Your answer must include reference to Color Adjustment. Fiske argues that, in television, codes are linked between prducers, text and the audience and as a result, television events are already encoded for the viewer. Because these events are already encoded what we see on television is never raw. When these codes are bult into what we see on television, we accept them as social norms. By accepting these codes as social norms, we further naturalize them. According to Fiske, there are three television codes, these are: reality, representation, and ideology. The level one television code is reality. This code refers to the understanding of social codes through appearance, dress, make up, behaviour, speech, gesture and environment. The documentary Color Adjustment offers an example. One example would be the show Julia, where an African American woman is shown living in a plush suburban setting. This setting was received by Anglo Americans of the time (1960s) as irregular as it was far from the reality of African American at the time. The level two television code is representation or technical codes. This refers to camera angles, music and lighting and how these codes shape the representation of the narrative. Another example from Colour Adjustment would be from Amos n Andy, where when these African Americans move into a dominant white neighborhood, there is ominous, dark, horrifying music playing in the background. The level three code is ideology and this refers to the overall composition. Once the material is organized into a coherent body of work, social acceptability of its ideological codes is desired. Ideological codes are individualism, patriarchy, race, class and capitalism. An example of these propagated ideologies can again be taken from Colour Adjustment where, most African Americans around the 1950-1960’s portrayed specific roles such as: the butler, the maid, the help and/or the servant. This is why Fiske says that television is already encoded a
More Less

Related notes for CCT210H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.