1. (5 marks) Five terms are bolded in the article and listed again here. Please define them in your own
disaster: is a serious negative impact caused by a hazardous event beyond the ability of the community
to cope with
mitigation: taking actions to reduce risk. Prevention is 100% mitigation
early warning: identifying potentially harmful disasters and identifying the proper authorities or people
cascading effects: one event occurring that causes another event to occur, which in turn causes another
natural hazard: a potentially threatening event that occurs naturally in the world
-List and briefly describe three ways in which building codes or differences in construction techniques
or materials can make a big difference in controlling damage from earthquakes.
1. shake tables for buildings. When an earthquake hits the shake tables that the building is built on
shake with the earthquake so it doesn’t remove the building from the ground by shaking.
2. reinforcement of plates
3. building away from geographic basins which can reflect and amplify earthquakes
Please define primary, secondary, and tertiary impacts and give two examples of each that are
typically caused by tsunamis.
-primary: direct damage caused by the hazard
1. damaged corrals
2. destruction of mangroves
-secondary: not a direct result of the hazard but something that would not have occurred without the
1. increased disease caused by flooding
2. temporary disruption of social services
-tertiary: again not a direct result of the hazard but the impact may not be immediately realized
1. reduced tourism
2. permanent changes in ecosystem
Please outline the main differences in the impacts of natural disasters on wealthy countries,
contrasted with the impacts on poorer, less economically developed countries.
-poorer countries are less insured but have less losses in terms (financially) because areas are less
developed and don’t have costly infrastructures as more developed countries do.
-wealthier countries though are by far more insured than poorer countries.
-most importantly poorer countries usually have more fatalities and injuries because they have the
largest increase in population and the distribution of the population is usually condensed into smaller
areas. Poorer nations also typically have less developed plans and even less resources to execute
emergency plans. The population of the poorer nations have further trouble accessing the poorly
What is a "precursor" event? Give two examples (either real or typical). -a precursor event is something that happens before another event occurs. Monitoring precursor
events may be used to identify potential hazards and provide early warnings
1. foreshocks to predict earthquakes
2. crustal deformation to also predict earthquakes
What steps or components are involved in hazard assessment? (CHOOSE HAZARD
ASSESSMENT) -OR- What steps or components are involved in. risk assessment?
-hazard assessment looks for patterns in the natural environment to predict the probable nature and
extent of an event (i.e frequency, magnitude, location). 3 steps
1. Screening: eliminate the natural events that don’t show a hazardous potential
2. Monitoring: continuously observe the natural events that do show a hazardous potential
3.Diagnosis: overall assessment
-Risk assessment is the appraisal of types an