Medieval History Exam Review.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
John Alexander

Medieval History Exam Review Important People/Events/Concepts Provide the date, the place, and historical significance England - William I (Conqueror) th o 11 Century o Norman King of England and Duke of Normandy o In 1066, during the Battle of Hastings he claimed his English Crown when he invaded and defeated the English forces of the Godwinsons. o He reshaped England in the Middle Ages by introducing changes to the English language and the changes of English Society - Henry I th o 12 century o King of England o Son of William the Conqueror o Issued the Charter of Liberties  Binds the King to certain laws regarding the treatment of church officials and nobles o Had a bit of a quarrel with his brother Robert but in the end he remained King by paying his brother a salary o Restored the laws of Edward the Confessor - Henry II o 12 Century o King of England, Duke of Normandy etc. o Father of Richard I and King John o Henry attacked England various times and soon became the King of England o Appointed Thomas Becket as Archbishop. Henry wanted to merge the Church with judicial system which in turn weakens the churches. Henry had Becket killed. He also cheated on his wife. o Died and succeeded by Richard I - King John (Magna Carta) o Reigned in 13 Century (Bit of 12 ) o Brother of Richard the Lionheart and later King of England o Went into a quarrel with the Pope and so England was put under excommunication o Was forced to sign ‘Magna Carta’.  A Charter signed issued in 1215  Required John to proclaim certain liberties and that his will was not arbitrary  This was issued to limit the power of the King  Led to the constitutional law in the English speaking world - Richard the Lionheart o 12 century o King of England and Duke of Normandy (Mostly stayed in France) o Son of King Henry II and brother of King John o Central Christian commander during the Third Crusade against Saladin o Scored considerable victories against Saladin but was unable to reconquer Jerusalem o Was taken captive in Austria (caused heavy taxation on Englishmen for his release) Germany - Henry IV th th o 11 to 12 century o King of the Romans and afterwards King of the Holy Roman Emperor o Brought in the Investiture Controversy  Conflict between the church and state with Pope Gregory VII  Henry tried to make Gregory step down. Gregory excommunicated Henry and removed his from the Church and as King  Henry asked for forgiveness. But quarrels followed  Investitures continued on - Frederick Barbarossa o 12 century o King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor o Led many campaigns in Italy o Revived a bit of the Justinian Code o Played a major rule during the Third Crusade and died there - Frederick II th o 13 Century o Holy Roman Emperor (King of the Romans) o Frequently at war with the Papacy. (Labeled antichrist by Gregory IX) o Connected with the fifth and sixth crusades France - Phillip (II) Augustus o 12 to 13 century o Last King of the Franks and first King of France o Known for expanding the French Kingdom and participating in the Third Crusade o Brought financial stability and passed some noble powers to the growing middle class o Had quarrels with Henry II and befriended his sons for his defeat o Later had conflicts with Richard and John - Philip (IV) the Fair th th o 13 to 14 century o King of France o Had Edward I as his vassalage. When Philip summoned Edward for a meeting and he didn’t come he stripped him of his possessions in France. Pissed many Englishmen. Later Philip gave his daughter Isabella to the Prince of Wales for marriage, it was meant to seal peace but brought about the Hundred Years War o Philip made Pope Clement V (First Pope of Avignon) disband the Knights Templars and also expelled Jews o Had a quarrel with Boniface VIII which made the pope issue the Clericis Laicos, forbidding the transference of church property to the French crown Popes - Urban II o 11 Century Pope o Best known for starting the First Crusade and setting up modern day Roman Curia (governing body of the Roman Church) o A byzantine emperor needed his help to defeat the Seljuk Turks, Urban took this opportunity to help them but his real motive was to capture Jerusalem. He made it seem that to go to the Holy Land was Gods will - Innocent III o 12 century to 13 century Pope o One of the most powerful and influential popes in history. Very influential in Imperial elections. Considered to be the most powerful person in Europe during his time as Pope o Reasserted papal power to Rome from Germany. Fought heavily against heresy. Initiated the medieval inquisition o Issued the Fourth Lateran Council (1215)  Every Christian past a certain age was required to make confession and holy communion at least once a year  Celibacy of the clergy o Called upon Christian forces to begin the Fourth Crusade (Although it was supposed to support Byzantines it ended up in the sack of Constantinople) - Gregory IX o 13 Century Pope o Endorsed the Northern Crusades o Excommunicated Frederick II for his refusal to undertake the crusade - Boniface VIII o 13 to 14 Century Pope o Remembered for his feuds with Dante (he was put in the eight circle of hell) o Boniface says that the ‘spiritual’ sword has more power than a physical one o Had quarrels with Philip IV The Fair (Philip cut of money supply going from France)
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