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HIS242 Final Exam Study Guide.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga

HIS242 – Lecture # 7 February 26, 2014 Nazi Gas Van (lateth930s)  January 20 , 1942 – Senior Nazis gather at the Wansee conference o Creating the final solution for the problem of the Jews o List of Jews and Jewish populations in neutral countries such as Sweden and Ireland o Systematic approach to murder Jews o Rational people o Einsatzgruppen = Nazi death squads o Develop the gas van  Problems from Nazi perspective:  Not fast enough – load onto truck, drive around block, hope they die  Causes a lot of stress for soldiers – shrieks of people, etc  Nazis did not enjoy killing people  Take off clothes – say we don’t want infectious diseases, but really because clothes might hold value  Experience takes approx. 15 minutes  At the height of their use, 30 vans were in use, utility was problematic, profound stress for Nazis  Only killed 50-60 Jews at a time, would take years to kill the millions of Jews o Himmler goes on a Jew hunt – he was so moved by a small massacre of Jews (200 Jews), he witnesses what the Nazis are doing and gets visibly upset about what the Nazis are doing o Himmler speech – these people (Nazi) who have done these war crimes, could not be brought back into society, war creating savages Christian Wirth/Sonderkommando (atAuschwitz)  Hitler sentenced death to Jews, communists, Jehovah’s witnesses, gypsies, homosexuals – sent to concentration camps  Difference between concentration camp and death camp  Concentration camps created economy – forced labor (slavery)  Many Nazis died due to intense labor  Poland is where a death camp is created – sole purpose to kill people  Death camp = factory of death  Wirths first major job is to gas undesirables (developmentally delayed, deformities, and anyone who does not conform to ideal standards of Nazi ideology)  Hitler gets Wirth to oversea the creation of death camps  The Wirth Method: gassing people in specially designed rooms  Try to find an efficient way to deal with the Jewish problem  AGerman pharmaceutical company called IG Farben manufactured a killing program in the form of a chemical gas called Zyklon B  Zyklon B could be mechanically delivered into shower heads – the powder reacts with water to produce fumes  Jews would get off trains and the Nazis would tell them they are dirty from a long trip so they should take a shower – a couple minutes later, everyone is sterile and killed  This form of killing spared the Nazi soldiers the trauma of killing people  This was completely RATIONAL  The Holocaust was a complete perversion of industrialization and the enlightenment – IMPORTANT o Trains/factories/doctors/camps Nazi Doctors  Medicine is one of the features of the modern world however Nazis perverted the idea of medicine and doctors being used to better people  Nazi doctors performed experiments on Jews o Josef Mengele (doctor atAuschwitz) – highly influential doctor o Mengele developed sterilization techniques  Doctors under Mengele would compete to see who could perform the most sterilizations in a day o Since the Germans were fighting war, they needed to test military weapons so they tested weapons on poor defenseless bodies  How many people can this one bullet shoot through?  Experiments done in extreme cold, extreme heat, and high altitudes (how high up until an oxygen mask is needed) o Injected diseases into Jews  How long until tuberculosis kills a person? o The experiments were all rational - scientific experiments done by specialists  Nazis were not insane, actually extraordinarily rational o Mengele was interested in woman particularly how to increase pregnancies in GermanAryan women  He cut open the bodies of women who were mothers of twins to see what is physically different about them than women producing one baby o Also cut up bodies of genetically different Jews to see what’s different  Nazi ideology of the superior GermanAryan race o Eliminate anyone who is not purebred and perfect German o Ideology backed by Pseudoscience o Physicians develop criteria to determine between the superior and inferior o Contrast to diversity in Canada – we celebrate difference  Nazi doctors stood at railway stations and played God – determined whether each Jew was fit for labour or should go straight to death in the gas chambers Death Camps  The final stage in the vast assembly line of murder  Industrialization is based on reason and making peoples lives better – in Nazi death camps, we see industrialization and rationality used for mass murder – equally implicated in modernity itself  Normal everyday people used their reason and rationality in viewing the holocaust and the result was to not confront it because the enormity of it was so vast  Trains started in 1942 to convey the Jewish victims to death camps o Nazis would go to Jewish ghettos and round up Jews to take them to railway stations o Trains are a symbol of modernity o Individuals were either selected for extermination or for work o They were packed into railway cars  100 people per car – so crowded that some died in transit  Deprived of food/water/hardly any air – no purpose of eating when they were going to be killed anyways o Vast majority sent to shower – once they were killed – Jewish slaves (Sonderkommando) removed the bodies from the showers to the crematorium  Outsourced labour b/c no Nazi soldier wanted to be apart of it  Once the Jews removed the bodies/cleaned and sterilized cattle cars/told arrivers where to go, they themselves were put to death o Created an assembly line of death – little interaction between the Nazis and Jews – factory assembly line perversion  Auschwitz logo translated to “only work will set you free” but really they only achieved freedom through death  Auschwitz was surrounded by barbed wire fences, guards with machine guns (lured over people to keep anxiety levels high and randomly shot to keep people alert and fearful), trained dogs also kept Lecture #8 March 5, 2014 Post WWII Proletarianization in the Eastern Bloc  Holocaust was solution to Jewish Problem  Perversion of industrial modernity  Nazis were logical; they knew exactly what they were doing. They kept records  Develop gas vans and Jews are screaming in pain. Traumatic for Nazis to kill  Jewish men and women  19451989, a brave new world. Two conferences created a bipolar world.  Fact of the matter is no particular treaty ended the war. Parts of Euro andAsia devastated.  US and SU become the two main powers.  Start to create rival blocs of power. US allies with Western Europe (West Germ, Eng, France). SU with East Europe (Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia). Development of the Cold War.  Clash of ideologies, capitalism and communism.  Communism is a top down economic system. Economic theories are based on Karl Marx and Lenin. Capitalism based on Adam Smith.  Comm is centrally run  Party runs the show, there may be some elections, but there’s gonnna be one guy on the ballot.  The difference between these ideologies is Cap believes in open mindedness and freedom, individuality, will lead to a better society. promotes a lot of social inequality. Marx sees this development of class structure and the discrepancies. His solution is make everybody equal, take away the differences between them.  Is the world going to be characterized by democracy or communism. What is the good life and how do we obtain it.  War was devastating for Russia, large portion was killed. They paid dearly. 17%.  Russians were the ones who defeated the Nazis, if it wasn’t for them, Nazis would have run Europe.  Russia’s catastrophic war time losses made them want to claim those places in Europe.  Poland’s urban population: 7.5 (1945) to 14.4 (1960). Massive industrialization in Eastern Europe.  Bulgaria: 26% in 1948 to 36% in 1960.  Population in Belgrade 368,000 (1950)585,000 (1960). Conquering Eastern Europe  SU send in the advisors and negotiate to get their people into power.  If that does not work... send in the military  “Purge” government of Nazi sympathizers  Create coalitions of procommunist supporters in government with people that agree with them.  Then they rig the system so that the pro-Russia coalition dominates the key political positions  US particularly in LA will also do the same tihngs Rise of Communist Governments in East Europe  1947 Hungary: there is a coalition party that had ousted the commnists in a democratic election. The communists forcible remove the coalition government and put their own people in power  1947 Romania: the monarch, King Michael was forced out of power by coms  1947 Bulgaria: Bulgarian comms win a plebiscite that creates a communist government. In the next few years they repress all other political parties but their own.  1940s Poland: the comms push out the socialist party and create their own single party system. The Marshall Plan 1947  How US helped rebuild Europe. $13 billion.  The USArebuilds Euro after WWII, 13 billion (1 trillion now).  US counters expansion of USSR through programs of military and economic aid.  Truman doctrine, support resistance of “free peoples” to communism. Self determinism  The Marshall plan provides $ for the industrial development of Euro  Encourages coordination between Euro countries. E. Euro doesn’t participate in the Marshall plan. They have the Warsaw Pact Creation of NATO, 1949  Amultinational consortium of nations. If one nation is attacked... they’ll go to war. Did it to counter Warsaw Pact.  Eisenhower was the first commander of NATO. NATO is anAmerican organization... anticommunism  West Germany is rearmed and is quickly integrated back into Euro.  USSR is not part of NATO nor are any E. Euro nations. BerlinAirlift (Berlin Blockade)  Starts in June 1948, end in June 1949  One of the first conflicts between East and West. Germany divided between east and west.  Berlin is inside the Russian part of Germany. Split into West Berlin and East Berlin.  Supposed to be temporary, supposed to structure a peace settlement and then Germ would be united, but they stall.  Whether Germ would be Cap or Comm, what sphere of influence would it be under, whether it will be democratic or authoritarian.  Berlin wall is put up, and new forms of government are created. Stalin blocks all roads to East Berlin. Stalin cuts off access to West Berlin. Starve that part of the city into submission.  So they start to fly planes into West Berlin and parachute supplies. 12 tons of supplies  Blockade ends with a formal creation of Eastern and Western Germany. GDR and West Germany Eisenhower R, 19531961 and John Foster Dulles SoS 19531959  Think of ways to contain Communism  It becomes the foreign policy of US  First principle, Comms should not expand, that’s why they go to war with Vietnam  Second, is capitalism must not go bankrupt trying to contain communism  Eisenhower obsessed with not being bankrupt to fight communism. Doesn’t want to ruin the national treasury by spending too much on military  Eis realizes that capitalists are greedy; arms companies will suckAmerica’s tax revenue and bankrupt US.Arms manufacturers will destroyAmerican economic system in the long run.  US manufactures threats to use military George Kennan (19042005)  Russian Ambassador, waiting to tell US the terror of the Comm state. Hes intelligent.  Hates Comms and see the growing police state of Stalin. Saw US made a mistake aligning with SU in WWII.  Says going to war with SU is nuts  Says they have to contain communism and limit their sphere of influence  See this will be a long and drawn out struggle. This struggle is going to take decades.  Writes this all in a telegraph, famous Former Yugoslavia/Joseph Tito  Doesn’t take crap from Soviets or US  After WWII, it becomes part of the Soviet Bloc.  Tito is a full fledged Comm, but doesn’t want Stalin’s help.  Wants Yugo to be Comm, but independent.  Imprisoned for antigovernment and pro union activities before.  Goes to Moscow to learn how to be a good cOMM  Assigned to construct a Comm party in Yugo  Makes a name for himself in WWII as a guy who goes after Nazis  Creates guerilla factions to ambush Nazis. Plays down his revolutionary zeal  Tito promises brotherhood and unity  Tito establishes the first Soviet regime after WWII in Yugo  Under Soviet regime, they are supposed to exploit peasantry to become the breadbasket of the USSR  Once theres an industrial base in Russia, everyone will rise.  SU are telling Yugo what to do. Tito uses propaganda.  SU wants to control Soviet bloc, but Tito says hes not a puppet, so Stalin gets upset. Tito wants to create a federation of Comm states to create a counter power to the Soviet.  1948, Stalin denounces Tito as a heretic of the Comm party. Calls on Yugo party leaders to oust him. First Tito is shaken that Stalin turns on him, SU wants to make Tito accountable for what hes done. But Tito still maintains control, imprisons those who speak against him. Proclaims his state is the only state that tries to follow the true principles of MarxistLeninism. Went to create a Comm state by himself. Realizes it’s a bad idea, os he begins to change, allows his workers to have selfmanagement which goes against Soviet ideology of only having party people. Let the market dictate prices. Tito even starts to each out to Western Euro and US. But then calls upon nonaligned states like Turkey and Iran. Trying to create his own center of power in the Balkans.  It becomes an influential power in world politics. He negotiates with US for military equipment against the SU, but also manages to have good relations with the Soviets especially in the later years of his reign. Friedrich Nietzche  Before WWII, people still believe in progress, reason, and enlightenment ideals  People saw progress before 1945 in every aspect of their lives, like rising standard  of living, industrialized cities,  According to the enlightenment, the world is a rational place  Enlightenment=modernity  Holocaust is going to question beliefs of modern civilization  Nietzsche calls God dead. Interested in the ancient Greeks.  With the rise of Christianity, their morals dominate the world; slaves religion, morality, culture and humanity became corrupt. Its weak. These values corrupted humanity.  He thinks theAncients had superior values because they strove for greatness.  Christianity advocates weakness. God is dead because modern Christians have killed him who don’t really believe in.  Calls for new values based on theAncient Greeks.Accept the meaninglessness of existence and making that meaninglessness a part of self liberation. Meaning of life is what we give to it.  Calls for a superman that will be able to recreate society on new lines and create new values that wil lead to human greatness.  Nietzsche’s belief is there will be 1 in 1 million who will be superman. Lecture #9 March 12, 2014 Friedreich Nietzsche (1844-1900)  Wrote the Genealogy of Morality – historical account asking where our morals come from and how we get them  Nietzsche argues that we get our morals through Christianity  Nietzsche is highly critical of Christianity  With the rise of Christianity – culture and humanity became corrupt – Christianity stresses “crazy” things according to Nietzsche (turn the other cheek, etc.)  Christianity corrupts humanity because it takes away the drive for human greatness – makes us weak – compassion associated with Christianity stifles human creativity – Christianity glorifies mediocrity  Christian values, were values of the slave, they were the underclass of the Roman Empire – embodies the slave morality  Christianity stresses humility, compassion, to Nietzsche, these corrupted Man, because man no longer strives to be great anymore  Looks back atAncient Rome and Greece and things they h
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