Taisho Japan (1920s)
The Taishō period (大正時代, “period of great righteousness”) is a period in the history of Japan dating from July 30,
1912 to December 25, 1926, coinciding with the reign of the Emperor Taishō. The health of the new emperor was
weak, which prompted the shift in political power from the old oligarchic group of elder statesmen to the Diet of
Japan and the democratic parties. Thus, the era is considered the time of the liberal movement known as the “Taishō
democracy” in Japan; it is usually distinguished from the preceding chaotic Meiji period and the
following militarism-driven first part of the Shōwa period.
Nanjing Decade (1927-1937)
The Nanjing decade (南京十年) was the decade from 1927 to 1937 in the Republic of China.
While the Nanjing decade was far more stable than the preceding warlord era, it was still beset with violence.
南京十年，又稱黃金十年、國民政府黃金十年或十年建國，通常是指國民政府從 1927年 4月 18日定都南京，
到 1937年 11月 20日遷都重庆期间的中国历史。北伐結束後，中國國民黨領導的國民政府在名義上統一中國，
Atomic Bombs and Firebombing
Nanjing Massacre (1937)
The Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanjing, was a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the
six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing, the former capital of the Republic of China, on
December 13, 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. During this period, hundreds of thousands of Chinese
civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.Widespread rape and looting
The New World
Li Shizhen (1518-1593)
Li Shizhen (李時珍 July 3, 1518 – 1593), was one of the greatest Chinese herbalists and acupuncturists in history. His
major contribution to medicine was his 27-year work, which is found in his epic book the Bencao Gangmu (本草纲目
“Compendium of Materia Medica”). He is also considered to be the greatest naturalist of China, and was very interested
in the proper classification of herb components.
The book has details about more than 1,800 Chinese Medicine. It also described the type, form, flavor, nature and
application in disease treatments of 1,094 herbs. His Materia Medica has been translated into many different languages,
and remains as the premier reference work for herbal medicine. The book was reprinted frequently. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Shizhen
A shogun (将軍) (literally, “a commander of a force”) was one of the (usually) hereditary military dictators
of Japan from 1192 to 1867. In this period, the shoguns, were the de facto rulers of Japan though they were nominally
appointed by the emperor.
The modern rank of shōgun is equivalent to a generalissimo. Although the original meaning of “shogun” is simply “a
general”, as a title, it is used as the short form of seii taishōgun (征夷大将軍),thegoverning individual at various times
in the history of Japan, ending when Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished the office to the Meiji Emperor in 1867.
A shogun’s office or administration is known in English as the “office”. In Japanese, it was known as bakufu (幕
府) which literally means “tent office”, and originally meant “house of the general”, and later also suggested a private
government. Bakufu could also mean “tent government” and was the way the government was run under a shogun. The
tent symbolized the field commander but also denoted that such an office was meant to be temporary. The shogun's
officials were as a collective the bakufu, and were those who carried out the actual duties of administration while the
Imperial court retained only nominal authority.
The Warring States (480-221 B.C.E)
The Warring States period (戰國時代), also known as the Era of Warring States, is a period in ancient
China following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the victory of the state of Qin in 221 BC, creating
an unified China under the Qin Dynasty. Most of this period coincides with the second half of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty,
although the Chinese sovereign (king of Zhou) was merely a figurehead.
The name of the period was derived from the Record of the Warring States, a work compiled early in the Han Dynasty.
Manchurian Incident (1931)
The Manchurian Incident was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for invading the
northern part of China, known as Manchuria, in 1931.
On September 18, 1931, a small quantity of dynamite was detonated by Lt. Kawamoto Suemori close to a railroad
owned by Japan’s South near Shenyang. Although the explosion was so weak that it failed to destroy the lines and a
train passed minutes later, the Imperial Japanese Army, accusing Chinese dissidents of the act, responded with a full
invasion that led to the occupation of Manchuria, in which Japan established its puppet state of Manchukuo six months later. The ruse was soon exposed to the international community, leading Japan to diplomatic isolation and its March
1933 withdrawal from the League of Nations.
The event including its aftermath is known in Japan as the “Manchurian Incident” ( 滿洲事變) and in China as the
“September 18 Incident” (九一八事變).
These voyages were long neglected in official Chinese histories but have become well known in China and abroad.
Meiji ishin (1868)
The Meiji Restoration (明治維新), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of
events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. The goals of the restored government were
expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan’s political and
social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of
the Meiji period. The period was responsible for the emergence of Japan as a modernized nation in the early twentieth