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Tong Lam

Taisho Japan (1920s) The Taishō period (大正時代, “period of great righteousness”) is a period in the history of Japan dating from July 30, 1912 to December 25, 1926, coinciding with the reign of the Emperor Taishō. The health of the new emperor was weak, which prompted the shift in political power from the old oligarchic group of elder statesmen to the Diet of Japan and the democratic parties. Thus, the era is considered the time of the liberal movement known as the “Taishō democracy” in Japan; it is usually distinguished from the preceding chaotic Meiji period and the following militarism-driven first part of the Shōwa period. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taish%C5%8D_period Nanjing Decade (1927-1937) The Nanjing decade (南京十年) was the decade from 1927 to 1937 in the Republic of China. While the Nanjing decade was far more stable than the preceding warlord era, it was still beset with violence. 南京十年,又稱黃金十年、國民政府黃金十年或十年建國,通常是指國民政府從 1927年 4月 18日定都南京, 到 1937年 11月 20日遷都重庆期间的中国历史。北伐結束後,中國國民黨領導的國民政府在名義上統一中國, 開啟了中國的「黃金十年」。這段時間國民政府在政治、經濟、基建、文化、教育、社會政策、邊疆民族政策、 外交、軍事等項目上皆有一定成就 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanjing_Decade Atomic Bombs and Firebombing Nanjing Massacre (1937) The Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanjing, was a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing, the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. During this period, hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.Widespread rape and looting also occurred. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanjing_Massacre The New World Li Shizhen (1518-1593) Li Shizhen (李時珍 July 3, 1518 – 1593), was one of the greatest Chinese herbalists and acupuncturists in history. His major contribution to medicine was his 27-year work, which is found in his epic book the Bencao Gangmu (本草纲目 “Compendium of Materia Medica”). He is also considered to be the greatest naturalist of China, and was very interested in the proper classification of herb components. The book has details about more than 1,800 Chinese Medicine. It also described the type, form, flavor, nature and application in disease treatments of 1,094 herbs. His Materia Medica has been translated into many different languages, and remains as the premier reference work for herbal medicine. The book was reprinted frequently. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Shizhen Shogun A shogun (将軍) (literally, “a commander of a force”) was one of the (usually) hereditary military dictators of Japan from 1192 to 1867. In this period, the shoguns, were the de facto rulers of Japan though they were nominally appointed by the emperor. The modern rank of shōgun is equivalent to a generalissimo. Although the original meaning of “shogun” is simply “a general”, as a title, it is used as the short form of seii taishōgun (征夷大将軍),thegoverning individual at various times in the history of Japan, ending when Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished the office to the Meiji Emperor in 1867. A shogun’s office or administration is known in English as the “office”. In Japanese, it was known as bakufu (幕 府) which literally means “tent office”, and originally meant “house of the general”, and later also suggested a private government. Bakufu could also mean “tent government” and was the way the government was run under a shogun. The tent symbolized the field commander but also denoted that such an office was meant to be temporary. The shogun's officials were as a collective the bakufu, and were those who carried out the actual duties of administration while the Imperial court retained only nominal authority. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shogun The Warring States (480-221 B.C.E) The Warring States period (戰國時代), also known as the Era of Warring States, is a period in ancient China following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the victory of the state of Qin in 221 BC, creating an unified China under the Qin Dynasty. Most of this period coincides with the second half of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, although the Chinese sovereign (king of Zhou) was merely a figurehead. The name of the period was derived from the Record of the Warring States, a work compiled early in the Han Dynasty. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warring_States_period Shandong Province http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shandong_Province Manchurian Incident (1931) The Manchurian Incident was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for invading the northern part of China, known as Manchuria, in 1931. On September 18, 1931, a small quantity of dynamite was detonated by Lt. Kawamoto Suemori close to a railroad owned by Japan’s South near Shenyang. Although the explosion was so weak that it failed to destroy the lines and a train passed minutes later, the Imperial Japanese Army, accusing Chinese dissidents of the act, responded with a full invasion that led to the occupation of Manchuria, in which Japan established its puppet state of Manchukuo six months later. The ruse was soon exposed to the international community, leading Japan to diplomatic isolation and its March 1933 withdrawal from the League of Nations. The event including its aftermath is known in Japan as the “Manchurian Incident” ( 滿洲事變) and in China as the “September 18 Incident” (九一八事變). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchurian_Incident Ming Voyages These voyages were long neglected in official Chinese histories but have become well known in China and abroad. 鄭和下西洋是指中國明朝早期一系列由官方進行的遠洋航海活動。1405年(明永樂三年),明成祖命太監鄭 和率領二百四十多海船、二萬七千四百名船員的龐大船隊遠航,拜訪了 30多個在西太平洋和印度洋的國家和 地區,加深了大明帝國和南海(今東南亞)、東非的友好關係。每次都由蘇州瀏家港出發,一直到 1433年(明 宣德 8年),一共遠航了有七次之多。最後一次,宣德八年四月回程到古里時,鄭和在船上因病過世。明代故 事《三寶太監西洋記通俗演義》和明代雜劇《奉天命三保下西洋》將他的旅行探險稱之為「三寶太監下西洋」。 鄭和曾到達過爪哇、蘇門答臘、蘇祿、彭亨、真臘、古裏、暹羅、榜葛剌、阿丹、天方、左法爾、忽魯謨斯、 木骨都束等三十多個國家,最遠曾達非洲東部,紅海、麥加,並有可能到過澳大利亞、美洲和紐西蘭。 鄭和是世界大航海時代的先驅,鄭和下西洋是當代航海事業的頂峰,後世幾百年中,幾無人能及。 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zheng_He Meiji ishin (1868) The Meiji Restoration (明治維新), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan’s political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji period. The period was responsible for the emergence of Japan as a modernized nation in the early twentieth century. 明治維新是指 19世纪中後期,日本所进行的由上而
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