POL114H5 Study Guide - Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Truman Doctrine, Mikhail Gorbachev

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6 Jan 2011
Chapter 3: The Cold War & Foreign Policy Analysis
The Cold War: Power Politics Ascendant
Cold War dominated global politics for over 40 years
Citizens of every state on earth put @ risk by nuclear arms race
Cold War was fought in international area through diplomacy, ideological rhetoric, arms
races, regional proxy wars and interventions, & competition for allies & military
basses around the world
History of relationship between superpowers reveals several themes that persisted until
collapse of Soviet Union:
Cyclical pattern of confrontation & cooperation
Nuclear Stalemate
Development of informal rules & mutual understandings
Political pragmatism versus ideological rhetoric
Superpower involvement in regional wars
Most countries of Western Europe joined NATO, which bound members to come to
assistance of any member should it be attacked; NATO built against threat posed by
Soviet Union
Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), commonly called Warsaw Pact, joined countries
of Eastern Europe with Soviet Union in alliance against NATO
Origins of the Bipolar Era
Origin of Cold War started in latter half of WWII; distrust began to develop between
Western Allies & Soviet Union
Membership of U.S. & U.S.S.R. in UN, which was mandated to preserve world peace,
offered hope that cooperation would continue
Relations between West & East deteriorated into open hostility & rivalry that largely
paralyzed UN Security Council
Hostility & Rivalry had ideological dimension, geopolitical dimension, strategic
dimension, international dimension
Ideological Dimension
Rivalry between 2 antagonistic political, economic, & social systems
Majority of Western countries perceived Marxism-Leninism as fundamentally
authoritarian political ideology that stifled the political & economic freedom of
Communism threatened overthrow of Western liberal democracy
Capitalism & communism cant coexist; Soviet Union had to do what it could to
accelerate historical inevitability of communist revolutions around the world
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