Test #3.doc

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
Test #3 – Psych
L0101 MW 11-12
1. Name the type of encoding used for each level in the Levels of Processing
model. [3 marks]
- shallow processing = structural encoding
- intermediate processing = phonemic encoding
- deep processing = semantic encoding
2. Explain the encoding specificity principle including state-dependent memory.
[4 marks]
- The ease with which we can retrieve a stored memory is dependent upon how well the
encoding and retrieval environments are matched. The more similar the encoding
environment is to the retrieval environment, the easier it will be to retrieve the desired
information. State-dependent memory extends the encoding specificity to include mood
states, such that the more similar the mood states are between encoding and retrieval the
easier it will be to retrieve the desired information.
3. What two theoretical structures were added to the Short Term Memory
Model to create the Working Memory Model? [2 marks]
- the visuo-spatial sketchpad and the executive control system
4. Semantic and episodic memories are types of _____________________
memory. [1 mark]
- declarative
5. What are semantics and syntax? [2 marks]
- semantics refers to the meanings of words
- syntax refers to the rules of sentence structure
6. How do environmental influences contribute to language development?
[3 marks]
- children use modeling and social learning to imitate the utterances of those around them
- children receive differential reinforcement for speech sounds and using the proper
7. What is a mental set? [2 marks]
- a mental set occurs when people persist in using problems-solving strategies that have
worked in the past, even though they may no longer be optimal or useful
- it is a barrier to problem solving that shows inflexibility
8. Provide an explanation and an example for the confirmatory bias. [3 marks]
- this bias occurs when we are more likely to perceive, attend to, and remember things
that confirm our beliefs and ignore or discount disconfirming evidence
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- e.g., at any given game, fans of both teams will likely believe the referee was biased
only against their team, or police sometimes ignore evidence that might exonerate their
9. What was the original meaning of an intelligence quotient and who proposed
it? [3 marks]
- IQ allows for comparison of test scores among different people
- IQ = Mental Age/Chronological Age x 100
- it was first proposed by Lewis Terman
10. List Gardner’s 7 different intelligences. [4 marks]
[1/2 for each, 4 marks for getting them all]
1) musical 2) bodily/kinesthetic 3) spatial 4) verbal 5) logical/mathematical
6) intra-personal 7) social
11. Describe how twin studies support the heritability of IQ? [3 marks]
- twin studies show that identical twins reared apart show a greater correlation in IQ
levels than fraternal twins who are reared together
- identical twins reared together show only slightly higher correlations in IQ than
identical twins reared apart
L0301 MW 3-4
1. In the Levels of Processing model, describe and provide an example for deep
processing. [3 marks]
- deep processing or semantic encoding would include attaching meaning or symbolism
to help remember a word, such as a visual imagery and meaningful examples. This
method leads to superior retrieval of information.
2. Identify two types of verbal mnemonics and give an example for each.
[4 marks]
[any two]
- acrostics are poems or sayings whose first letter from each word represents something
to be remembered. Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge represents the lines of the treble
- acronyms are words created wherein each letter represents something to be
remembered. Roy G. Biv is a name that represents the colors of the visible light
- rhymes and songs are used to help remember things, such as I before E except after C…
3. Explain the Recency effect. [2 marks]
- when trying to memorize a list of words that is longer than 7+or-2 bits of information,
we often remember the last few words in the list, since the last few words are still fresh in
the STM store and have not yet started to decay.
4. Unconscious conditioned learning is also known as _________________
memory. [1 mark]
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- implicit
5. According to the rules of syntax, what must be present in every sentence?
[2 marks]
- a noun phrase and a verb phrase
6. Provide three pieces of evidence that suggest language development is innate.
[3 marks]
- language acquisition seems to develop in similar ways across all cultures
- children can learn a second language much more easily than adults can
- children isolated from language during critical periods for language development may
never learn complex language and always show deficits
7. List 4 common barriers to problem solving [2 marks]
[1/2 mark each]
- using irrelevant information, functional fixedness, mental sets, unnecessary constraints
8. What are illusory correlations? Provide an example. [3 marks]
- illusory correlations occur when you believe there is a relationship between two events
that does not exist in reality
- e.g., any superstition, like believing blowing on the dice improves the chances of a
winning roll, or thinking that your lucky rabbit’s foot helps you win at Bingo
9. State two criticisms of the validity of IQ tests. [4 marks]
- IQ tests have a minimal theoretical basis since there are no underlying constructs or
guidelines used to devise the tests. In fact they are originally based on faulty theories like
- IQ tests are culturally biased such that scores depend on what your native language is
and the similarity of cultural experiences with those who devised the test e.g., immigrants
from Europe who did not have English as a first language were deemed mental defectives
because they did not have good scores and people from hunter-gatherer civilizations
would also score poorly even if they were highly intelligent.
10. What is the information processing approach to intelligence testing?
[3 marks]
- the IP approach examines the processes that underlie intelligent behavior, such as, speed
of processing or how rapidly someone can perform a mental task, knowledge base and
the ability to apply new mental strategies.
11. 11. Explain how the lower IQ scores of certain minority groups in the United
States could be explained by environmental factors. [3 marks]
- lower socioeconomic status can lead to poorer nutrition in childhood which leads to
lower IQ scores
- it also leads to fewer learning supplies, less exposure to books, less parental
involvement in learning, poorer schools, and less emphasis on intellectual pursuits
[could also mention stereotype vulnerability as a factor]
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