PSY100Y5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, Ventromedial Nucleus Of The Hypothalamus, Paraventricular Nucleus Of Hypothalamus

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13 Apr 2013
Test #4 – Psych
L0101 MW 11-12
1. What three regions of the Hypothalamus have been strongly implicated in
eating behavior? [3 marks]
- lateral region, ventromedial region, paraventricular nucleus (PVN)
2. Explain Parental Investment Theory. [3 marks]
- in any given species, the sex that makes the smaller investment in the rearing of
offspring will compete for mating opportunities with the sex that makes the larger
investment, and the sex that makes the larger investment will tend to be more
discriminating in selecting its partners.
3. In neuropsychological terms, explain the dual processing of emotions.
[4 marks]
- the thalamus receives sensory input and channels the signals to two places. 1)
information is rapidly sent to the amygdala where instinctive and reflexive autonomic
reactions take place and 2) the information is sent more slowly to the cortex where
experience, environmental cues, and physiological reactions can all be assessed before
taking action. Rapid, instinctive responding to threatening stimuli may be the difference
between life and death in some circumstances, whereas reasoned, logical responses are
slower, but will better take into account the next appropriate behavioral response to the
4. List the three phases of prenatal development and their corresponding time
frames. [3 marks]
- germinal period: 1st 2 weeks after conception
- embryonic period: 3rd to 8th weeks of gestation
- fetal period: from 9 weeks till birth
5. Define the term “teratogens” and provide an example. [2 marks]
- teratogens are environmental agents such as viruses or chemicals that can harm a
developing fetus
- e.g., alcohol can lead to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, cocaine use can lead to delayed motor
and emotional development, smoking can lead to SIDS, premature births, stillbirths, and
miscarriages, influenza may lead to schizophrenia, etc…
6. List Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development and their corresponding
time frames. [4 marks]
1. 1) sensorimotor period (birth to 2 years)
2. 2) preoperational period (2 to 7 years)
3. 3) concrete operational period (7 to 11)
4. 4) formal operational period (11 to adult)
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2. What is Erikson’s second stage of personality development? [1 mark]
- autonomy vs. shame and doubt
3. According to Freud, what two drives are the motivating forces for human
behavior? [2 marks]
- aggressive and sexual drives
4. In what stage of psychosexual development would we find penis envy?
[1 mark]
- phallic
5. Briefly explain Bandura’s Social Learning theory. [3 marks]
- Observational or vicarious learning occurs by merely observing what others do (others
are the models) and what the consequences are of those observed actions. There are two
important processes, the first being acquisition which merely requires observing a
behavior and its consequences and the second is acceptance or performance where the
person actually performs the observed behavior
6. According to Ellis’ Rational Emotive Therapy, what are the two
fundamental goals of all human beings who are acting rationally? [2 marks]
- to stay alive and to try and be happy or satisfied
7. According to the Trait approach to personality, what are the two main
assumptions about traits? [2 marks]
1. 1) traits are stable over time
2. 2) traits are stable across situations
L0301 MW 3-4
1. Describe in order the first 4 levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. [2 marks]
[1/2 mark each]
1. i) physiological needs – hunger, thirst, sex
2. ii) safety needs – shelter/housing, money
3. iii) love or belongingness – intimacy, family support, friends
4. iv) esteem – self-worth, self-efficacy, self-respect, respect from others
2. Explain the organizational effects of androgens on the developing fetus.
[2 marks]
- High levels of androgens in the 3-month-old fetus will lead to physical and personality
attributes that correspond to a masculine or male gender. In the absence of these
androgens, nature’s tendency is to create a female or feminine traits.
3. What are some of the gender differences found in patterns of sexual activity
and how do evolutionary psychologists explain them? [3 marks]
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- males generally show a greater interest in sex, initiate sex more often, have more sexual
partners, and engage in more sex with partners they barely know, than women
- because males can have thousands of children, it is in their best interest for reproductive
success to have as many partners as possible, whereas females are very limited in the
number of children they can have, thus, they must be very selective about who they mate
4. Identify and give an example of the 3 components of emotions. [3 marks]
- physiological arousal, e.g., increased heart rate, galvanic skin response, autonomic
activity, etc…
- subjective experience, e.g., fear of pain, or death, or anticipation of pleasure, etc…
- behavioral expression, e.g., scream, cry, laugh, make a facial expression, etc…
5. Explain the cross-sectional method of study and state when it is useful and
when it is not useful. [3 marks]
- the cross-sectional method compares groups of different ages at the same time
- it is useful for assessing age differences
- it is not useful for assessing age changes
6. 6. List the 3 types of infant-caregiver attachment discussed in the lectures.
[3 marks]
- 1) secure 2) anxious-ambivalent 3) avoidant
7. According to Piaget, define “conservation” and state the stage of cognitive
development where children learn this ability. [2 marks]
- Conservation is the understanding that the basic properties of an object are constant
even if the object changes shape
- Piaget believed that children mastered conservation in the concrete operational period
8. In what stage of Kohlberg’s moral development would we find right and
wrong determined by abstract ethical principles of equality and justice?
[1 mark]
- post conventional
9. What is Erikson’s fifth stage of personality development? [1 mark]
- identity vs. confusion
10. Define and provide an example for the following defense mechanisms:
Projection, Reaction Formation, and Displacement. [3 marks]
- Projection is attributing your own unacceptable impulses to others e.g., you believe that
your friend is mad at you when really it is you who are mad at your friend
Reaction Formation: a person converts an unacceptable impulse into the opposite impulse
e.g., a person attracted to the same sex may express open hostility to homosexuals
- Displacement: diverting emotional reactions from their original source to a substitute
target e.g., a man who is mad at his boss comes home and yells at his wife
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