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PSY100Y5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Thematic Apperception Test, Ostracism, Leptin


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Study Guide
Midterm

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Psychology Unit 4 Test
Motivation and Emotion
1. Motivation: goal directed behavior, needs/wants
2. Drive Theories
a. Internal tension that motivates us to engage in activity to reduce tension
b. Seeking homeostasis (equilibrium between elements, stability)
3. Incentive Theories
a. External goal motivating behavior
b. Drive and incentive are a push vs pull theory
4. Evolutionary Theories
a. Maximization of reproductions and survival success
i. Aggression and sex
5. Expectancy-value
a. Expectancy about one’s chance of attaining incentive
6. Types of Motivation
a. Hunger
i. Biological (internal)
1. Not dependent on stomach, stomach sends signals to brain
2. Hunger controlled in brain and bloodstream
3. Leptin: hormone contributes to regulation of hunger
ii. Environmental (external)
1. 3 key factors
a. Availability taste, quantity, Presence of others = eat more
(women with men = less)
b. Stress - causes 50% to eat more, 50% to eat less, digestive
system shuts off
c. Learned preferences and habits
b. Social
i. Achievement (internal)
1. Master challenges, outperform others, meet high standards
2. Measured with Thematic Apperception Test
a. Subjects respond to stimuli in ways that reveal personal motives
and traits
ii. Achievement drive based on situational determinants
1. Need for achievement (stable)
a. Fear of failure
2. Probability/value of success (varies)
3. probability/value of failure
4. Incentive value (varies)
c. Affiliation (external)
i. Need to belong
1. Bonds offer survival and reproduction benefits
ii. Ostracism
1. Being ignored and excluded, shows same brain response as physical
pain
d. Sexual

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7. Human Sexual Response
a. 4 phases
i. Excitement
ii. Plateau
iii. Orgasm
iv. Resolution
1. Refractory period: unresponsive to further stimulation
8. Sexual Orientation
a. Biological; on a continuum
9. Emotion Main Elements
a. Cognitive
i. Subjective conscience experience based on physiological bodily arousal
ii. Evaluative aspect (good or bad) influence emotions
iii. Affective forecasting: Predict one’s emotional reactions to future events
1. People mis-predict feelings since they don’t understand the
effectiveness of people’s ability to rationalize and overlook failures
b. Physiological
i. Autonomic arousal
1. Fight or flight
2. Increased heart rate, lost memory, slowed digestive system
3. GSR: Increase in electrical conductivity of skin when sweat glands
increase activity
c. Behavioral
i. Emotions expressed through body language
ii. Facial movements send emotions signals to brain
10. Discrete Emotion Theory
a. Small number of distinct emotions
b. 7 primary emotions
i. Happiness, disgust, fear sadness, surprise, anger and contempt
1. These combine to form secondary emotions
11. Cognitive Theories of Emotion
a. Emotions product of thinking
b. James-Lange theory
i. Emotions result of interpretation of reactions to stimuli
1. Can lead to fear
c. Cannon-Bard theory
i. Multiple emotions could insight similar physical reaction
ii. Emotion provoking event leads to emotional and bodily reaction
12. 2-Factor Theory of Emotion
a. Emotions derived from arousal and cognitions used to explain arousal
13. Euphoria Condition
a. Less happy when they know why they feel that way
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