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Midterm

PSY100Y5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge, Illusory Correlation, Episodic Memory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Study Guide
Midterm

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Test 3 L0201 Tues. 2-4
1. In the Levels of Processing model, describe and provide an example for deep
processing. [3 marks]
- deep processing or semantic encoding would include attaching meaning or symbolism to
help remember a word, such as a visual imagery and meaningful examples. This method
leads to superior retrieval of information.
2. Identify two types of verbal mnemonics and give an example for each. [4
marks]
[any two]
- acrostics are poems or sayings whose first letter from each word represents something to
be remembered. Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge represents the lines of the treble cleft.
- acronyms are words created wherein each letter represents something to be remembered.
Roy G. Biv is a name that represents the colors of the visible light spectrum.
- rhymes and songs are used to help remember things, such as I before E except after C
3. Explain the Recency effect. [2 marks]
- when trying to memorize a list of words that is longer than 7+or-2 bits of information, we
often remember the last few words in the list, since the last few words are still fresh in the
STM store and have not yet started to decay.
4. Semantic and episodic memory are two types of _____________________
memory. [1 mark]
- declarative
5. What are semantics and syntax? [2 marks]
- semantics refers to the meanings of words
- syntax refers to the rules of sentence structure
6. Provide three pieces of evidence that suggest language development is innate.
[3 marks]
- language acquisition seems to develop in similar ways across all cultures
- children can learn a second language much more easily than adults can
- children isolated from language during critical periods for language development may
never learn complex language and always show deficits
7. List 4 common barriers to problems solving [2 marks]
[1/2 mark each]
- using irrelevant information, functional fixedness, mental sets, unnecessary constraints
8. Provide an explanation and an example of illusory correlation. [3 marks]
- illusory correlations occur when you believe there is a relationship between two events

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that does not exist in reality
- e.g., any superstition, like believing blowing on the dice improves the chances of a
winning roll, or thinking that your lucky rabbit’s foot helps you win at Bingo
9. State two criticisms of the validity of IQ tests. [4 marks]
- IQ tests have a minimal theoretical basis since there are no underlying constructs or
guidelines used to devise the tests. In fact they are originally based on faulty theories like
Galton’s
- IQ tests are culturally biased such that scores depend on what your native language is and
the similarity of cultural experiences with those who devised the test e.g., immigrants from
Europe who did not have English as a first language were deemed mental defectives
because they did not have good scores and people from hunter-gatherer civilizations would
also score poorly even if they were highly intelligent.
10. What is the information processing approach to intelligence testing? [3
marks]
- the IP approach examines the processes that underlie intelligent behavior, such as, speed
of processing or how rapidly someone can perform a mental task, knowledge base and the
ability to apply new mental strategies.
11. What is the Flynn effect? Give two possible explanations for this phenomenon. [3
marks]
- refers to the fact that the level of performance required to earn a score of 100 on IQ tests
has risen steadily all over the industrialized world since the 1930s
- one possible explanation is a reduction in the prevalence of severe malnutrition among
children
- another possible explanation is that TV and video games have enhanced visuospatial and
other cognitive skills
Test 3 L0101 Mon. 2-4
1. In the Levels of Processing model, describe and provide an example for
intermediate processing. [3 marks]
- intermediate processing or phonemic encoding would include remembering how a word
sounds or if the word rhymes with something familiar. This method is the most common
form of encoding, but leads to only average retrieval of information.
2. Explain each of the following methods of improving encoding: Over-learning,
Transfer-appropriate processing, Distributed practice. [4 marks]
- over-learning is when you continue to rehearse information after you have mastered it, to
increase resistance to decay and improve ease of retrieval.
- transfer-appropriate processing means that you need to match encoding techniques with
type of retrieval questions. For example, to study for a multiple choice test you should
practice multiple choice questions and to study for a short answer test you should practice
by doing short answer questions.
- distributed practice means that it is better to study 1 hour per day for four days than to

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study 4 hours in a row if you want to improve encoding, storage and retrieval of
information.
3. Explain the Primacy effect. [2 marks]
- when trying to memorize a list of words that is longer than 7 +or-2 bits of information, we
usually remember the first few words quite well as we have time to rehearse and
phonemically encode them before too much interference is encountered from the rest of the
list..
4. Memory for specific skills such as riding a bike or driving a car is known as
____________________ memory. [1 mark]
- procedural (I would accept “implicit” as well)
5. What is a phoneme and how many are there in human language? [2 marks]
- a phoneme is the smallest unit of sound, and there are 100 in human language
6. Briefly describe the general development of language from birth to 2 years of
age. [4 marks]
- up to 6 months there is crying, cooing, smiling, and other non-verbal communication
- from 6-18 months there is babbling, consisting of repeated consonant-vowel pairs (e.g.,
lalalala)
- first words emerge around 10-13 months
- from 18 to 24 months there is a vocabulary spurt with up to 20 new words being learned
every week (fast mapping)
7. What do you call a methodical step-by-step procedure for trying all possible
alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem? [1 mark]
- algorithm
8. Provide an explanation and an example for the confirmatory bias. [3 marks]
- this bias occurs when we are more likely to perceive, attend to, and remember things that
confirm our beliefs and ignore or discount disconfirming evidence
- e.g., at any given game fans of both teams will likely believe the referee was biased only
against their team, or police sometimes ignore evidence that might exonerate their suspect
9. What is the factor analytic approach to intelligence testing and who first
proposed this approach? [3 marks]
- the factor analytic approach uses statistical procedures called factor analysis to look for
items that correlate together and try to find a common factor that is influencing all the
related items in a particular cluster
- Charles Spearman first proposed this approach
10. What is Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences and provide 3 examples
that support his theory. [4 marks]
- Gardner believes that mental abilities are independent
a) brain damage can alter one mental ability while leaving others intact
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