Study Guides (258,907)
CA (125,049)
UTM (5,134)
PSY (828)
PSY313H5 (13)

chap 1-3 summary notes

15 Pages
84 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY313H5
Professor
Giampaolo Moraglia

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 15 pages of the document.
- with the baby boom generation, a change is occuring in how adults think and deal with their
own development
- people are becoming more interested in adult development and aging
continue reading chapter 1 notes in binder
- periods of development notes from binder up to aging
Pg. 35-63- read chapter 2 notes in binder
Pg 85- 99- sensorimotor functioning notes to
Pg. 130- 138
Neurological system
- also known as the nervous system-
- it is a communication link among cells and organs of the body, and it is important for the
functioning of many other body systems (sensory perception, motor control)
- it has 2 parts
1) central nervous system – brain and the spinal cord- responsible for higher order functions- ex.
Memory, language, intelligent behaviour, reflexes
2) peripheral nervous system- connects the CNS to the rest of the body
Structural and functional changes
- brain changes with age, but it varies for different people
- in healthy older people, changes are slight, don’t make much of a difference
- brain increases in weight until age 30, then slight weight loss, followed by a rapid weight loss
- by age 90, may lose 10% of its weight- perhaps because it loses its neurons, nerve cells- don’t
replace themselves
- different parts of the brain lose different numbers of neurons
- ex. Cerebellum loses alot- affecting balance and fine motor coordination
* loss of brain matter
- functional change= slowing of responses- reflexes dissapear
- slowing down of the central nervous system can affect physical coordination and intellectual
performance
- interferes with ability to learn and remember, poor performance on timed tests (ex. Intelligence)
- however, nerve cells may create more dendrites- compensates for loss of neurons by increasing
synapses (or connections) among remaining cells
- autonomic nervous system is apart of peripheral nervous system
- declines with old age- harder to stand extreme temperatures, less control over anal muscles and
pee
Dementia- confusion, forgetfulnes, personality changes
- physiologically based intellectual and behavioural breakdown
www.notesolution.com
- doesn’t happen to all aging people
- most are irreversible, some can be changed with treatment
- dementias thought to be due to other causes fall under Alzhiemers
Dreaded diseases of aging
Alzheimers
- most common and most feared terminal illnesses for aging people
- robs people of intelligence, awareness, ability to control bodily functions, kills them
- prevalence is expected to increase
- risk of it increases with age – thus if people are living longer, will be at greater risk for it
Symptoms
- memory impairment, breakdown of language, deficits in visual and spatial processing
- can’t recall recent events or take in new information
- personality changes- egocentric, impaired emotional control, rigid (can help in early detection)
- irritability, anxiety, depression, delusions, wandering
- longterm memory, judegement, orientation become impaired- can’t do basic activities in daily
life
- can’t remember family, can’t control bladder, can’t eat, can’t walk
- death comes 8-10 years after symptoms appear
Causes and risk factors
- an abnormal protein beta amyloid peptide accumulates
- brain also contains alot of neurofibrillary tangles (twisted masses of dead neurons) and
amyloid plaque (nonfunctioning issue formed between spaces in neurons)
- AD is heritable-
- but education and cognitively stimulating activities can reduce risk
-by building a cognitive reserve: allows a deteriorating brain to continue to function under stress
up to a certain point without showing impairment (how cognitive activity can protect against
AD)
- diet, excercise, lifestyle (less saturated fats, more unhydrogenated, vitamin E)
- smoking increases risk
- sleep apnea, head injuries early in life
Diagnosis and prediction:
- can only fully be diagnosed by looked at the brain tissue of a dead person
- tools for living patients= neuroimaging- can see brain lesions
- reduced metabolic activity in hippocampus can predict a memory impairment in the next 9
years
- blood tests that measure amyloid proteins can predict it in early stages
- neurocognitive screening tests, paper-pen cognitive tests, psychometric tests
- genetic testing has a limitied role
- healthy middle-aged people who don’t show symptoms, and have the APOE-e4 gene- show
decline in spatial attention, working memory, prospective memory (wha to do int he future)
www.notesolution.com
Treatment and prevention
- no cure- but early treatment and diagnosis can improve quality of life
- medication= memantine- inhibits action of glutamate – which can overstimulate brain cells
resulting in cell damage
- may be given with cholinesterase inhibitors and alot of vitamin E
- memory training and memory aids can improve cognitive functioning, behavioural therapies
imrpove communication,
- drugs can reeduce depression
- proper diet with exercise = important
CANCER- a disorder of many systems
- a term for 100 different diseases
- involves uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells- if untreated, invades healthy tissue
- can spread to many body organs
- 2nd leading cause of death in elderly
Why?
- weak immune system-
- older people have had more time to develop cancers- which take time to grow
- some cancers are more curable than others (ex. Skin cancer)
- death rates for some types have decreased, others increased (lung cancer)
- discovering 2 mutant genes of cancer in colon and rectum- can also help identify other types
- mutations prevent errors in DNA to be corrected- that arise in cell divison- thus cell
multiplication is not controlled
- not all cancers are genetic- some are created by environmental carcinogens- cancer causing
agents like pollution, pesticides, plastics, exposure to sun
- avoid smoking, eat healthy, excercise, to prevent it
- chemotherapy (anticancer drugs), radiation treatments, surgery, people can live alittle longer
- have discovered telomerase- enzyme present in most cancers, allows tumour cells to grow-
medications are trying to block its action
- gender related cancers= breast cancer and prostate cancer
BREAST CANCER-
- chance of it increases with age
- early detection is key to treating it
-mammography- X-ray used for early detection- detect 1-3 yrs before lump is felt
- clinical examinations are also important
- 2 genes responsbible-
- thus genetic screening occurs in women with strong family histories, also Tamoxifen- reduce
the risk
- alcoholincreases risk
- long term use of hormone replacement therapy- increases risk (but not estrogen alone)
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
- with the baby boom generation, a change is occuring in how adults think and deal with their own development - people are becoming more interested in adult development and aging continue reading chapter 1 notes in binder - periods of development notes from binder up to aging Pg. 35-63- read chapter 2 notes in binder Pg 85- 99- sensorimotor functioning notes to Pg. 130- 138 Neurological system - also known as the nervous system- - it is a communication link among cells and organs of the body, and it is important for the functioning of many other body systems (sensory perception, motor control) - it has 2 parts 1) central nervous system brain and the spinal cord- responsible for higher order functions- ex. Memory, language, intelligent behaviour, reflexes 2) peripheral nervous system- connects the CNS to the rest of the body Structural and functional changes - brain changes with age, but it varies for different people - in healthy older people, changes are slight, dont make much of a difference - brain increases in weight until age 30, then slight weight loss, followed by a rapid weight loss - by age 90, may lose 10% of its weight- perhaps because it loses its neurons, nerve cells- dont replace themselves - different parts of the brain lose different numbers of neurons - ex. Cerebellum loses alot- affecting balance and fine motor coordination * loss of brain matter - functional change= slowing of responses- reflexes dissapear - slowing down of the central nervous system can affect physical coordination and intellectual performance - interferes with ability to learn and remember, poor performance on timed tests (ex. Intelligence) - however, nerve cells may create more dendrites- compensates for loss of neurons by increasing synapses (or connections) among remaining cells - autonomic nervous system is apart of peripheral nervous system - declines with old age- harder to stand extreme temperatures, less control over anal muscles and pee Dementia- confusion, forgetfulnes, personality changes - physiologically based intellectual and behavioural breakdown www.notesolution.com- doesnt happen to all aging people - most are irreversible, some can be changed with treatment - dementias thought to be due to other causes fall under Alzhiemers Dreaded diseases of aging Alzheimers - most common and most feared terminal illnesses for aging people - robs people of intelligence, awareness, ability to control bodily functions, kills them - prevalence is expected to increase - risk of it increases with age thus if people are living longer, will be at greater risk for it Symptoms - memory impairment, breakdown of language, deficits in visual and spatial processing - cant recall recent events or take in new information - personality changes- egocentric, impaired emotional control, rigid (can help in early detection) - irritability, anxiety, depression, delusions, wandering - longterm memory, judegement, orientation become impaired- cant do basic activities in daily life - cant remember family, cant control bladder, cant eat, cant walk - death comes 8-10 years after symptoms appear Causes and risk factors - an abnormal protein beta amyloid peptide accumulates - brain also contains alot of neurofibrillary tangles (twisted masses of dead neurons) and amyloid plaque (nonfunctioning issue formed between spaces in neurons) - AD is heritable- - but education and cognitively stimulating activities can reduce risk -by building a cognitive reserve: allows a deteriorating brain to continue to function under stress up to a certain point without showing impairment (how cognitive activity can protect against AD) - diet, excercise, lifestyle (less saturated fats, more unhydrogenated, vitamin E) - smoking increases risk - sleep apnea, head injuries early in life Diagnosis and prediction: - can only fully be diagnosed by looked at the brain tissue of a dead person - tools for living patients= neuroimaging- can see brain lesions - reduced metabolic activity in hippocampus can predict a memory impairment in the next 9 years - blood tests that measure amyloid proteins can predict it in early stages - neurocognitive screening tests, paper-pen cognitive tests, psychometric tests - genetic testing has a limitied role - healthy middle-aged people who dont show symptoms, and have the APOE-e4 gene- show decline in spatial attention, working memory, prospective memory (wha to do int he future) www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit