PSY345H5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Spina Bifida, Autism Spectrum, Intellectual Disability

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
UTM
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY345H5
Autism
definitions
autism appeared in literature in the beginning of 20th century ****
autistic spectrum disorders
o spectrum of disorders that are characterized by language deficits, intellectual deficits, emotional
disturbance and deficits in interpersonal skills
autism
o neurological disorder usually evident before the age of 3, characterized by language deficits,
intellectual deficits, extreme social isolation, and self stimulation
o ****IDEA - autism is
neurological disorder
affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction
mostly evident before the age of 3
that adversely affects academic performance
that is characterized by
impairments and irregularities in communication
engagement in regular activities and stereotypic movements
resistance to env change and change in routine
unusual response to sensory experiences
aspergers
o higher functioning form of autism
o unlike individuals with autism, those with aspergers don’t show marked delay in language and cog
development
o show deficits in communication and social skills
o shows unusual social interactions and behaviors with autism but with no delay in language****
retts syndrome ****
o neurological disorder affecting mostly girls
o who develop normally until age 5 months to 30 months
o when the development skills slow down and in many cases regress
prevalence
5 in 10 000 people - autism ****
116 in 10 000 people - autism spectrum disorders
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characteristics
rigid when picked up ****
no response to physical contact
no eye contact
use peripheral vision
attachment to obj and not people
language
o most don’t develop language, those that do often have echolalia
****echolalia - meaningless repetition or imitation of words that have been spoken; among
the most salient behavioural abnormalities in kids with autism
stereotypic behaviours
o stereotypic behaviours or self stimulation
behaviours that involve repeated movements such as rocking and hand flapping
often occurs in kids with autism
sometimes leads to self injurious behaviors (mostly low functioning)
resistance to routine
o resistance to env change and change to the routine
intelligence
o 75% have lower intelligence that other kids
o 10-15% have splinter skills - areas of ability in which performance is exceptionally high
learning characteristics
o difficulties
perseverate on a topic - have hard time shifting attention from one topic to the next
difficulty with language and abstract reasoning ****
focus of separate stimuli without understanding the general concept
abilities develop unevently both within and amoung skill levels ****
difficulty in inclusion - inclusion depends to a high degree on the classmates
when the child desires routine, the teacher can draw on it when practice or drill is
warranted in learning a skill ****
o strengths
can focus
good long terms memory
splinter skills
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causes
psychodynamic
o the cause of autism is family interactions
o in response to the rejection from the parents the child develops defense mechanism
o retreats to the inner world and stops interacting with the outside words that involves people
biological
o most current research on the causation of autism is based on biological perspective ****
o fragile x chromosome
part of the x chromosome breaks off or splits
occurs in some males with autism ****
not cause but simply co-occurs with autism
o vermis****
area in the cerebellum that appears to be underdeveloped in children with autistic
spectrum disorders,
this abnormality may be related to the cognitive malfunctions in autism
o neurological damage to the CNS
may be due to alcohol abuse or rubella, delivery problems
o many researchers view autism as a behavioural syndrome with multiple biological causes ****
diagnosis and intervention
diagnosis
o mostly before the age of 3
educational intervention
o the main goal is to prepare them to live in their own community in the least restrictive env
o it is vital that IEP have central component of functional communication and social skills ****
o under IDEA students with autism are entitled to free and appropriate education in least restrictive
environment possible ****
psychological and medical intervention
o before - aim was to reduce inner conflict****; electroshock**** was used and psychosurgery
o today - drugs are used to relieve the symptoms
antipsychotics - relieve self injuries behaviours
clomipramine - relieve obsessive compulsive disorders
o drugs have shown some improvement in autism but it should be used in conjunction with
multicomponent treatment plan****
behavioural therapy
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Document Summary

****idea - autism is affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction. Mostly evident before the age of 3 that adversely affects academic performance that is characterized by aspergers impairments and irregularities in communication engagement in regular activities and stereotypic movements resistance to env change and change in routine. 5 in 10 000 people - autism **** 116 in 10 000 people - autism spectrum disorders characteristics rigid when picked up **** Use peripheral vision attachment to obj and not people language: most don"t develop language, those that do often have echolalia. ****echolalia - meaningless repetition or imitation of words that have been spoken; among the most salient behavioural abnormalities in kids with autism stereotypic behaviours stereotypic behaviours or self stimulation. Behaviours that involve repeated movements such as rocking and hand flapping. Perseverate on a topic - have hard time shifting attention from one topic to the next.

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