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PSY100 Past Test 3.doc

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Dax Urbszat

Test #3 – Psych L0101 MW 11-12 1. Name the type of encoding used for each level in the Levels of Processing model. [3 marks] - shallow processing = structural encoding - intermediate processing = phonemic encoding - deep processing = semantic encoding 2. Explain the encoding specificity principle including state-dependent memory. [4 marks] - The ease with which we can retrieve a stored memory is dependent upon how well the encoding and retrieval environments are matched. The more similar the encoding environment is to the retrieval environment, the easier it will be to retrieve the desired information. State-dependent memory extends the encoding specificity to include mood states, such that the more similar the mood states are between encoding and retrieval the easier it will be to retrieve the desired information. 3. What two theoretical structures were added to the Short Term Memory Model to create the Working Memory Model? [2 marks] - the visuo-spatial sketchpad and the executive control system 4. Semantic and episodic memories are types of _____________________ memory. [1 mark] - declarative 5. What are semantics and syntax? [2 marks] - semantics refers to the meanings of words - syntax refers to the rules of sentence structure 6. How do environmental influences contribute to language development? [3 marks] - children use modeling and social learning to imitate the utterances of those around them - children receive differential reinforcement for speech sounds and using the proper words 7. What is a mental set? [2 marks] - a mental set occurs when people persist in using problems-solving strategies that have worked in the past, even though they may no longer be optimal or useful - it is a barrier to problem solving that shows inflexibility 8. Provide an explanation and an example for the confirmatory bias. [3 marks] - this bias occurs when we are more likely to perceive, attend to, and remember things that confirm our beliefs and ignore or discount disconfirming evidence - e.g., at any given game, fans of both teams will likely believe the referee was biased only against their team, or police sometimes ignore evidence that might exonerate their suspect 9. What was the original meaning of an intelligence quotient and who proposed it? [3 marks] - IQ allows for comparison of test scores among different people - IQ = Mental Age/Chronological Age x 100 - it was first proposed by Lewis Terman 10. List Gardner’s 7 different intelligences. [4 marks] [1/2 for each, 4 marks for getting them all] 1) musical 2) bodily/kinesthetic 3) spatial 4) verbal 5) logical/mathematical 6) intra-personal 7) social 11. Describe how twin studies support the heritability of IQ? [3 marks] - twin studies show that identical twins reared apart show a greater correlation in IQ levels than fraternal twins who are reared together - identical twins reared together show only slightly higher correlations in IQ than identical twins reared apart L0301 MW 3-4 1. In the Levels of Processing model, describe and provide an example for deep processing. [3 marks] - deep processing or semantic encoding would include attaching meaning or symbolism to help remember a word, such as a visual imagery and meaningful examples. This method leads to superior retrieval of information. 2. Identify two types of verbal mnemonics and give an example for each. [4 marks] [any two] - acrostics are poems or sayings whose first letter from each word represents something to be remembered. Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge represents the lines of the treble cleft. - acronyms are words created wherein each letter represents something to be remembered. Roy G. Biv is a name that represents the colors of the visible light spectrum. - rhymes and songs are used to help remember things, such as I before E except after C… 3. Explain the Recency effect. [2 marks] - when trying to memorize a list of words that is longer than 7+or-2 bits of information, we often remember the last few words in the list, since the last few words are still fresh in the STM store and have not yet started to decay. 4. Unconscious conditioned learning is also known as _________________ memory. [1 mark] - implicit 5. According to the rules of syntax, what must be present in every sentence? [2 marks] - a noun phrase and a verb phrase 6. Provide three pieces of evidence that suggest language development is innate. [3 marks] - language acquisition seems to develop in similar ways across all cultures - children can learn a second language much more easily than adults can - children isolated from language during critical periods for language development may never learn complex language and always show deficits 7. List 4 common barriers to problem solving [2 marks] [1/2 mark each] - using irrelevant information, functional fixedness, mental sets, unnecessary constraints 8. What are illusory correlations? Provide an example. [3 marks] - illusory correlations occur when you believe there is a relationship between two events that does not exist in reality - e.g., any superstition, like believing blowing on the dice improves the chances of a winning roll, or thinking that your lucky rabbit’s foot helps you win at Bingo 9. State two criticisms of the validity of IQ tests. [4 marks] - IQ tests have a minimal theoretical basis since there are no underlying constructs or guidelines used to devise the tests. In fact they are originally based on faulty theories like Galton’s - IQ tests are culturally biased such that scores depend on what your native language is and the similarity of cultural experiences with those who devised the test e.g., immigrants from Europe who did not have English as a first language were deemed mental defectives because they did not have good scores and people from hunter-gatherer civilizations would also score poorly even if they were highly intelligent. 10. What is the information processing approach to intelligence testing? [3 marks] - the IP approach examines the processes that underlie intelligent behavior, such as, speed of processing or how rapidly someone can perform a mental task, knowledge base and the ability to apply new mental strategies. 11. 11. Explain how the lower IQ scores of certain minority groups in the United States could be explained by environmental factors. [3 marks] - lower socioeconomic status can lead to poorer nutrition in childhood which leads to lower IQ scores - it also leads to fewer learning supplies, less exposure to books, less parental involvement in learning, poorer schools, and less emphasis on intellectual pursuits [could also mention stereotype vulnerability as a factor] L0201 TR 1-2 1. In the Levels of Processing model, describe and provide an example for intermediate processing. [3 marks] - intermediate processing or phonemic encoding would include remembering how a word sounds or if the word rhymes with something familiar. This method is the most common form of encoding, but leads to only average retrieval of information. 2. Explain each of the following methods of improving encoding: over-learning, transfer-appropriate processing, distributed practice. [4 marks] - over-learning is when you continue to rehearse information after you have mastered it, to increase resistance to decay and improve ease of retrieval. - transfer-appropriate processing means that you need to match encoding techniques with type of retrieval questions. For example, to study for a multiple choice test you should practice multiple choice questions and to study for a short answer test you should practice by doing short answer questions. - distributed practice means that it is better to study 1 hour per day for four days than to study 4 hours in a row if you want to improve encoding, storage and retrieval of information. 3. What is the Primacy effect? [2 marks] - when trying to memorize a list of words that is longer than 7 +or-2 bits of information, we usually remember the first few words quite well as we have time to rehearse and phonemically encode them before too much interference is encountered from the rest of the list.. 4. Memory for specific skills, such as riding a bike or driving a car, is known as ____________________ memory. [1 mark] - procedural 5. What is a phoneme and how many are there in human language? [2 marks] - a phoneme is the smallest unit of sound, and there are 100 in human language 6. Briefly explain the milestones of language development from birth to 2 years of age. [4 marks] - up to 6 months there is crying, cooing, smiling, and other non-verbal communication - from 6-18 months there is babbling, consisting of repeated consonant-vowel pairs (e.g., lalalala) - first words emerge around 10-13 months - from 18 to 24 months there is a vocabulary spurt with up to 20 new words being learned every week (fast mapping) 7. What do you call a methodical step-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem? [1 mark] - algorithm 8. What is the availability heuristic? Provide an example. [3 marks] - it involves basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind. - e.g., many more people have a fear of flying than a fear of driving even though statistically air travel is much safer, because plane crashes are unique and highly publicized whereas car accidents are mundane and thus are usually ignored. 9. 9. What is the factor analytic approach to intelligence testing and who first proposed this approach? [3 marks] - the factor analytic approach uses statistical procedures called factor analysis to look for items that correlate together and try to find a common factor that is influencing all the related items in a particular cluster - Charles Spearman first proposed this approach 10. 10. Explain Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences and provide 3 examples that support his theory. [4 marks] - Gardner believes that mental abilities are independent a) a) brain damage can alter one mental ability while leaving others intact b) b) savants have differing levels of intelligence c) c) different abilities develop at different times in childhood e.g., Mozart could write music long before he could read 2. Explain the concept of stereotype vulnerability. [3 marks] - derogatory stereotypes of stigmatized groups’ intellectual capabilities create unique feelings of vulnerability in the educational arena that affect test performance and academic achievement, e.g., African American students perform worse on tests when stereotypes of their ability are made salient versus when stereotype vulnerability is not salient - i.e., minority group members worry that bad test results will be attributed to their minority group status and this can affect their test performance L6001 TR 5-6 1. In the Levels of Processing model, describe and provide an example for shallow processing. [3 marks] - shallow processing or structural encoding would include remembering if a word was in capital letters, or what color the letters were. This method can lead to poor retrieval of information. 2. Explain each of the following methods of improving encoding: elaboration, self-referential encoding, and visual imagery. [3 marks] - elaboration is when you create a meaningful example to help remember a concept. - self-referential encoding is when you create an example or image that is about yourself, or related to the self in some way, in order to help remember a concept. - visual imagery is where you imagine some image or event related to a term or concept to encode the information both phonemically (auditory) and visually. 3. What are the proposed limits of capacity and duration for the short term memory store? [2 marks] - STM is believed to hold 7+or-2 bits of information and the duration of STM is believed to be about 20-30 seconds without maintenance or rehearsal. 4. Generic knowledge for facts is known as _____________________ memory, whereas, memory for specific events is known as _____________________ memory. [2 marks] - semantic; episodic 5. What is a phoneme and how many are there in the English language? [2 marks] - a phoneme is the smallest unit of sound, there are 40 in the English language 6. List 6 types of non-verbal communication [3 marks] [1/2 mark for each] - vocal intonation, body language, gestures, physical distance, facial expressions, touch 7. What is functional fixedness? [2 marks] - it is the tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use - this can be a barrier to problem solving 8. What is the Gambler’s Fallacy? Provide an example. [3 marks] - the GF is the belief that the odds of a chance event increase if the event has not occurred recently - an example would be a gambler believing that because red has come up on the roulette table 6 times in a row, the next number to come up is most likely black. - This however is not true as each spin has a 50 % chance of being black or red 9. 9. What is the psychometric approach to intelligence testing and who was first to popularize it? [3 marks] - the psychometric approach devises tests and statistical techniques to measure a person’s cognitive level relative to others in a population - it was first popularized by Sir Francis Galton 10. Explain the concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence. [4 marks] - fluid intelligence refers to mental processes such as reasoning ability, memory capacity, and speed of information processing. - crystallized intelligence involves a person’s knowledge base and involves the ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving. - fluid intelligence declines with age whereas crystallized intelligence can increase with age and experience 11. 11. What is the Flynn effect? Give two possible explanations for this phenomenon. [3 marks] - refers to the fact that the level of performance required to earn a score of 100 on IQ tests has risen steadily all over the industrialized world since the 1930s - one possible explanation is a reduction in the prevalence of severe malnutrition among children - another possible explanation is that TV and video games have enhanced visuo-spatial and other cognitive skills 3mw11 ____ 1) A student's organized set of expectations about how to study for and take an exam is an example of a A. script B. cluster C. conceptual hierarchy D. semantic network ____ 2) Series-completion problems are examples of which of Greeno's (1978) categories? A. inducing structure B. arrangement C. transformation D. recategorization ____ 3) Which of the following heuristics would you probably employ if assigned the task of carrying out a school election? A. work backwards B. representativeness C. search for analogies D. form subgoals ____ 4) Malcolm has been watching a roulette-type game at a local charity bazaar. The game has only ten numbers on the wheel, and every number except 8 has come up as a winner during the last 15 minutes. Malcolm decides to bet $10 on number 8, because it has to come up eventually. In this case, Malcolm is showing evidence of A. the availability heuristic B. the gambler's fallacy C. the conjunction fallacy D. the base rate fallacy ____ 5) According to the reaction range model A. children with average IQ scores will not have very wide reaction ranges B. children with average IQ scores are being raised in average-quality environments C. children raised in high-quality environments should score near the top of their reaction range D. children raised in high-quality environments will have higher IQ scores than children raised in poor-quality environments ____ 6) A child who uses "wented" as the past tense of the verb "to go" A. is using a metalinguistic transformation B. is probably still at the stage of using semantic slanting C. is using a general rule in an irregular case where it does not apply D. is using motherese to express the past tense ____ 7) In their efforts to understand memory storage, theorists have historically related it to A. the change of seasons B. the water in a stream C. the technologies of their age D. a library of documents ____ 8) Correlations between IQ scores and school grades can best be characterized as A. nonsignificant B. moderately negative C. moderately positive D. positive, and nearly perfect ____ 9) Chunking is the A. elaboration of information in short-term memory for storage into long- term memory B. process of passing information from sensory memory to short-term memory C. actual storage process of information in long-term memory D. method used to increase the amount of information one can hold in short-term memory ____ 10) You flip a fair coin ten times. Each time it comes up heads you get 10 cents. Each time it comes up tails you lose 5 cents. What is your expected value for each flip of the coin? A. +10 cents B. +5 cents C. -5 cents D. -10 cents ____ 11) Spearman argued that intelligence A. is a series of unrelated factors B. is made up of a "core factor" common to all intellectual abilities C. can change from time to time D. is only seen in certain "school-type" problems ____ 12) Jerome is 8 years old and has been determined to have a mental age of 10. What is Jerome's IQ? A. 80 B. 100 C. 110 D. 125 ____ 13) General knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned is contained in __________ memory. A. episodic B. semantic C. implicit D. procedural ____ 14) Which of the following areas of the brain is associated with the severe memory impairment that occurs in Alzheimer's disease? A. limbic system B. hippocampal region C. sympathetic nervous system D. Broca's area ____ 15) Which subtheory of intelligence, as proposed by Sternberg, is associated with dealing effectively with novelty and how one performs familiar tasks automatically and effortlessly? A. the contextual subtheory B. the operational subtheory C. the experiential subtheory D. the generative subtheory ____ 16) If it takes you 10 minutes to memorize a list the first time and only 2 minutes to memorize it a week later, then your "savings score" is __________ percent. A. 20 B. 50 C. 80 D. 90 ____ 17) Steele's theory of stereotype vulnerability is an attempt to explain why A. Asian-Americans score higher than average on IQ tests B. African-Americans score lower than average on IQ tests C. cultural bias must necessarily be inherent in all intelligence tests D. general intelligence in a population declines over time ____ 18) Professor Ridley is known for giving fair exams that include only test items for which the student should have been prepared. Professor Ridley's exams can be said to be high in A. criterion-related validity B. content validity C. predictive validity D. standardized validity ____ 19) "Rearing together" gives higher correlations in IQ than "rearing apart" for which groups? A. fraternal twins only B. identical twins only C. siblings only D. fraternal twins, identical twins, and non-twin siblings ____ 20) Mia was trying to figure out how to fit the box that contained her new computer into the trunk of her car. She mentally manipulated the position of the box, trying to figure out a way to make it fit. Based on Baddely's model of working memory, Mia was utilizing A. the visuospatial sketchpad to mentally manipulate the box's position B. the rehearsal loop while she worked repeatedly on the problem C. the executive control system to juggle all the information she needed to consider D. her prospective memory to remember the actions she would need to perform ____ 21) The smallest unit of meaning in a language is A. the phoneme B. the word C. the phrase D. the morpheme ____ 22) You are at a daycare center and you hear three 12-month-old babies babbling; each baby from a different racial/ethnic background (Asian, Hispanic, and Caucasian). The babbling of each of these infants A. will sound very similar, because maturation is the major determinant of language acquisition during the first year B. will consist mainly of vowel sounds, because consonant sounds don't usually emerge until 14 months of age C. will consist mainly of two-word phrases (telegraphic speech) D. will sound very different, with each child's babbles sounding quite similar to the parents' native language ____ 23) The concept of motivated forgetting is based largely on the work of which of the following early psychologists? A. Hermann Ebbinghaus B. Sigmund Freud C. John Watson D. Wilhelm Wundt ____ 24) If a psychological test is to tell you how you score relative to other people, the following must be developed A. test norms B. test scores C. test scales D. test levels ____ 25) The educational practices in modern Western societies seem to nourish A. field independence B. risk-averse behaviors C. field dependence D. algorithmic problem-solving ____ 26) The fact that overregularizations occur in many different languages as children master language skills provides evidence against A. the interactionist theory of language development B. the behavioral theory of language development C. the nativist theory of language development D. the linguistic relativity theory of language development ____ 27) The form of mental retardation that is usually caused by the presence of an extra chromosome is A. phenylketonuria B. hydrocephaly C. organic D. Down syndrome ____ 28) Attempting possible solutions to a problem sequentially, then discarding the ones that don't work until you find one that does, is called the __________ method of problem solving. A. working backward B. heuristic C. algorithmic D. trial-and-error ____ 29) The process of making attributions about the origins of memories is referred to as A. reality monitoring B. source monitoring C. buffering D. a contraindication ____ 30) Overconfidence in recalling information is most likely to be fueled by which of the following errors in thinking? A. source-monitoring errors B. reality-monitoring errors C. the fundamental attribution error D. the failure to seek disconfirming evidence 3mw11A 1) ANS: A REF: 277 2) ANS: A REF: 319 3) ANS: D REF: 322 4) ANS: B REF: 331 5) ANS: C REF: 366 6) ANS: C REF: 312 7) ANS: C REF: 270 8) ANS: C REF: 356 9) ANS: D REF: 272 10) ANS: B REF: 330 Correct = 87% 11) ANS: B REF: 372 Correct = 74% 12) ANS: D REF: 352 Correct = 53% 13) ANS: B REF: 296 Correct = 69% 14) ANS: B REF: 293 15) ANS: C REF: 375 Correct = 48% 16) ANS: C REF: 284 17) ANS: B REF: 369 18) ANS: B REF: 349 Correct = 61% 19) ANS: D REF: 363 20) ANS: A REF: 274 21) ANS: D REF: 309 Correct = 71% 22) ANS: D REF: 310 23) ANS: B REF: 286 Correct = 60% 24) ANS: A REF: 348 Correct = 80% 25) ANS: A REF: 327 Correct = 64% 26) ANS: B REF: 316 27) ANS: D REF: 359 28) ANS: D REF: 322 Correct = 93% 29) ANS: B REF: 281 30) ANS: D REF: 303 3mw3 ____ 1) The gradual conversion of information into durable long-term memory codes is called A. long-term potentiation B. postsynaptic conversion C. elaboration D. consolidation ____ 2) The person who has the ability to see all aspects of a problem and make good decisions is demonstrating the __________ type of intelligence. A. verbal B. practical C. social D. academic ____ 3) A norm refers to A. a test's reliability B. a test's validity C. a test's distribution of scores D. all of these things ____ 4) Penfield's studies suggest that long-lost memories can be elicited through electrical stimulation of the brain. This suggests the possibility that forgetting may be a matter of A. retrieval failure B. displacement C. gradual decay D. unconscious wishes to forget ____ 5) The conjunction fallacy is a tendency to A. ignore information about base rates when estimating the probabilities of certain combinations of outcomes B. overestimate the odds of a chance event if that event hasn't occurred recently C. draw general conclusions based on a few isolated cases D. believe that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone ____ 6) When the word "oat" is changed to the word "boat," the number of A. phonemes and morphemes are both increased B. phonemes stays the same, but the number of morphemes is increased C. phonemes increases, but the number of morphemes stays the same D. phonemes decreases, but the number of morphemes increases ____ 7) The child's first words are generally spoken at about what age? A. 3 to 5 months B. 6 to 8 months C. 10 to 13 months D. 18 to 21 months ____ 8) The fact that the correlation in IQ scores between identical twins reared apart is lower than that between identical twins reared together suggests that A. environmental factors can have an influence on intellectual development B. environmental factors have no impact on intellectual development C. genetic factors have no impact on intellectual development D. identical twins often do not have the same genotype ____ 9) The entrance exam that Jaclyn is taking for graduate school has a number of questions such as: glove is to hand as sock is to __________. Questions of this type are considered to be A. problems of arrangement B. problems of transformation C. problems of inducing structure D. ill-defined problems ____ 10) The fact that some people have an organized sequence of memories for driving their car to work implies the existence of A. prototypes B. analogies C. scripts D. chained connotations ____ 11) According to Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, a mnemonic device such as learning "Every good boy does fine" in order to remember which notes are on the lines of the treble clef in musical notation represents A. a metacomponent B. a knowledge-acquisition component C. a performance component D. an intelligence component ____ 12) Which of the following statements is the most debatable? A. Intelligence is at least somewhat genetic in origin. B. Genetic factors are strongly implicated in the cause of ethnic differences in intelligence. C. The average IQ in the lowest social clas
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