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Short Answer Test 4 full.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

2008 L0101 M 2-4 1. Explain the effects of stimulation and lesioning in both the lateral and ventricular hypothalamus. [2 marks] [1/2 mark each] - stimulation of the lateral region induces eating, whereas lesions produce starvation - stimulation of the ventricular region inhibits eating, whereas lesions induce overeating 2. What is the evolutionary explanation for gender differences in mate preferences? [4 marks] - throughout evolution men have looked for women with good reproductive potential and thus have traditionally valued youthfulness (allowing for more reproductive years) and attractiveness (which is a sign of health and fertility) in their partners, whereas women have looked for mates that could provide material resources and protect the family. Thus, women traditionally place more emphasis on intelligence, income and status in mate selection. 3. List the 5 basic emotional states discussed in class. [3 marks] [1/2 mark each and mark for getting all 5] - anger, fear, happiness, sadness, disgust, surprise 4. Positive emotions are related most strongly to activation of _______________ systems, whereas negative emotions are most strongly related to activation of ________________________ systems. [2 marks] - dopamine, norepinephrine 5. Explain the concept of critical periods and provide examples. [3 marks] - the brain is set to acquire a function during a limited period of time, if key experiences do not occur during a critical time period, the function may not develop normally or at all. - the brain is also more vulnerable to certain teratogens (environmental stimuli) at some critical periods as opposed to other times where exposure is not as serious. - e.g., Genie was isolated till age 13 and thus never fully developed language skills - e.g., measles can cause mental retardation if contracted during certain fetal periods 6. According to Piaget, define object permanence and state the stage of cognitive development where it is first found. [2 marks] - object permanence refers to the realization that an object continues to exist even if it cannot be seen - according to Piaget it develops at the end of the sensorimotor period 7. In which of Kohlbergs stages of moral development do we find right and wrong being determined by what is punished? [1 mark] - preconventional stage 8. What are Eriksons first and last stages of personality development? [2 marks] - Trust vs. mistrust - Integrity vs. despair 9. Identify and describe Freuds three structures of personality. [6 marks] - Id: based on the pleasure principle, unconscious desires, wishes, and instincts - Ego: based on the reality principle, struggles to satisfy Id and Superego and deal with the reality of the world - Superego: based on the morality principle, keeps Id in check and tries to establish a sense of right and wrong based on society, family, and internal morals . 10. Explain the concept of reciprocal determinism. [2 marks] - internal mental events, external environmental events and overt behavior all interact and influence one another in a persons subjective experience of the world. 11. List the Big Five factors of personality traits. [3 marks] [1/2 mark each and mark for getting all 5] - Openness to experience - Conscientiousness - Extroversion - Agreeableness -Neuroticism L0201 T 2-4 1. What are some of the gender differences found in patterns of sexual activity and how do evolutionary psychologists explain them? [3 marks] - males generally show a greater interest in sex, initiate sex more often, have more sexual partners, and engage in more sex with partners they barely know, than women - because males can have thousands of children, it is in their best interest for reproductive success to have as many partners as possible, whereas females are very limited in the number of children they can have, thus, they must be very selective about who they mate with. 2. Identify and give an example of the 3 components of emotions. [3 marks] - physiological arousal, e.g., increased heart rate, galvanic skin response, autonomic activity, etc - subjective experience, e.g., fear of pain, or death, or anticipation of pleasure, etc - behavioral expression, e.g., scream, cry, laugh, make a facial expression, etc 3. List 3 common methodologies used in developmental research. [3 marks] - cross-sectional studies, longitudinal studies, sequential studies 4. List the 3 types of infant-caregiver attachment discussed in the lectures. [3 marks] - 1) secure 2) anxious-ambivalent 3) avoidant 5. According to Piaget, define conservation and state the stage of cognitive development where children learn this ability. [2 marks] - Conservation is the understanding that the basic properties of an object are constant even if the object changes shape - Piaget believed that children mastered conservation in the concrete operational period 6. Explain Piagets concepts of assimilation and accommodation. [2 marks] - Assimilation involves interpreting new information in light of an old or existing schema - Accomodation is the process by which old schemas are modified to fit new situations and information 7. What is Eriksons fifth stage of personality development? [1 mark] - identity vs. confusion 8. Define and provide an example for the following defense mechanisms: Projection, Reaction Formation, and Displacement. [6 marks] - Projection is attributing your own unacceptable impulses to others e.g., you believe that your friend is mad at you when really it is you who are mad at your friend Reaction Formation: a person converts an unacceptable impulse into the opposite impulse e.g., a person attracted to the same sex may express open hostility to homosexuals - Displacement: diverting emotional reactions from their original source to a substitute target e.g., a man who is mad at his boss comes home and yells at his wife 9. According to Ellis Rational Emotive Therapy, list three positive and five negative emotions that would be considered inappropriate. [4 marks] [1/2 mark each] Positive: grandiosity, rage, mania Negative: depression, anxiety, despair, self-pity, feelings of worthlessness 10. List the Big Five factors of personality traits. [3 marks] [1/2 mark each and mark for getting all 5] - Openness to experience - Conscientiousness - Extroversion - Agreeableness -Neuroticism L6001 M 6-8 1. Describe in order the first 3 levels of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. [3 marks] i) physiological needs hunger, thirst, sex ii) safety needs shelter/housing, money iii) love or belongingness intimacy, family support, friends 2. Explain Parental Investment Theory. [3 marks] - in any given species, member of the sex that makes the smaller investment in the rearing of offspring will compete for mating opportunities with the sex that makes the larger investment, and the sex that makes the larger investment will tend to be more discriminating in selecting its partners. 3. In neuropsychological terms, explain the two paths for processing emotions. [4 marks] - the thalamus receives sensory input and channels the signals to two places. 1) information is rapidly sent to the amygdala where instinctive and reflexive autonomic reactions take place and 2) the information is sent more slowly to the cortex where experience, environmental cues, and physiological reactions can all be assessed before taking action. Rapid, instinctive responding to threatening stimuli may be the difference between life and death in some circumstances, whereas reasoned, logical responses are slower, but will better take into account the next appropriate behavioral response to the situation. 4. List the three phases of prenatal development and their corresponding time frames. [3 marks] - germinal period: 1 2 weeks after conception - embryonic period: 3 to 8 weeks of gestation - fetal period: from 9 weeks until birth 5. Define the term teratogens and provide an example. [2 marks] - teratogens are environmental agents such as viruses or chemicals that can harm a developing fetus - e.g., alcohol can lead to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, cocaine use can lead to motor and emotional developmental delays, smoking can lead to SIDS, premature births, stillbirths, and miscarriages, influenza may lead to schizophrenia, etc 6. List Piagets four stages of cognitive development and their corresponding time frames. [4 marks] i) sensorimotor period (birth to 2 years) ii) preoperational period (2 to 7 years) iii) concrete operational period (7 to 11) iv) formal operational period (11 to adult) 7. What are Eriksons first two stages of personality development? [2 marks] - trust vs. mistrust - autonomy vs. shame and doubt
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