____ 1) Breland and Breland's work with "miserly raccoons" demonstrated
A. how principles of reinforcement (derived from studies of rats and pigeons) easily
generalize to raccoons
B. differences in appropriate rewards for different species
C. that there are biologically imposed limits to the generality of conditioning principles
D. that raccoons are less conditionable, and therefore less intelligent, than rats and pigeons
____ 2) Simon cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting
room of his dentist's office. In this example, cringing in the waiting room is
A. an unconditioned response
B. a conditioned stimulus
C. a conditioned response
D. an unconditioned stimulus
____ 3) Which of the following drugs has the greatest number (and most diverse) negative effects
on physical health?
____ 4) The most vivid dreams generally occur
A. during REM sleep
B. during NREM sleep
C. during the early hours of sleep
D. when alpha brain waves are present
____ 5) Continuous reinforcement occurs when
A. reinforcement is delivered continually, regardless of whether or not a response is made
B. it is not known in advance what responses will be reinforced
C. every behavior engaged in by the subject is reinforced
D. every occurrence of the designated response is reinforced
____ 6) The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of
beer filling a glass. This illusion of motion is the
A. phi phenomenon
B. constancy principle
C. common-fate principle
D. motion parallax effect
____ 7) Petra looked directly into a very bright light and damaged her retina. The opthamologist
has told her that she has sustained massive damage to her cones, but for the most part her rods
have not been affected. One change that you could predict for Petra's vision is that she will
A. poor vision in low illumination
B. poor peripheral vision
C. no color vision
D. more accurate depth perception
____ 8) An electroencephalograph is a device that measures
A. glucose metabolism in the brain
B. muscle tension in the body
C. respiration rates as an index of arousal
D. electrical activity of the brain ____ 9) Ken used to drool at the smell of peanut butter cookies as they baked, and he couldn't
wait to sink his teeth into that first cookie. However, Ken's new roommate makes terrible
peanut butter cookies and the smell of them baking is no longer associated with a wonderful
taste experience. Consequently, Ken finds that the smell of the cookies no longer makes him
drool in anticipation. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as
A. spontaneous recovery
B. second-order conditioning
____ 10) According to optimal foraging theory, predatory animals will usually
A. pursue small prey that requires little effort to catch
B. pursue large prey that requires greater effort to catch
C. pursue small prey only if foraging in large groups
D. maximize nutritional value relative to the energy they expend in hunting
____ 11) Nathan is watching the cumulative recorder that is connected to a box where a rat is
pressing a lever to receive food reinforcement. The slope of the line is becoming flatter and
flatter over time. Based on this output, Nathan can conclude that the rat's response rate
A. is increasing over time
B. will soon show spontaneous recovery
C. is decreasing over time
D. is caused by inadequate stimulus generalization
____ 12) Which of the following statements about dreams is most accurate?
A. Only about 75 percent of all people dream.
B. The reason we do not remember our dreams is that the content of the dream is repressed.
C. People cannot remember their dreams because of too much time passing between when
they dreamed and when they try to recall the dream.
D. Most dreams people can remember deal with sexually oriented topics.
____ 13) When Antonio was sick as a child his mother would always make him vanilla pudding; to
Antonio it seemed like the vanilla pudding made him feel better. Even now, he still gets a
good feeling when he starts to prepare some vanilla pudding, but not when he starts to make
any other type of pudding. This example illustrates the classical conditioning process of
A. stimulus generalization
B. instinctive drift
C. stimulus discrimination
D. negative avoidance
____ 14) Of the following, the only sensory system that does not project upward to the cerebral
cortex through the thalamus, is
____ 15) If selectively deprived of REM sleep, a person will experience __________ later.
D. REM rebound ____ 16) Interposition refers to
A. the relationship between bipolar and ganglion cells
B. the processing of auditory information at the cochlear level
C. an environmental depth cue in which closer objects overlap objects farther away
D. the lens's ability to change shape and focus light directly on the retina
____ 17) One hypothesis regarding the cause of crib death in babies is that they stop breathing
during sleep, a sleep disorder known as
B. sleep apnea
C. night terror
____ 18) Which of the following is not one of the four basic tastes?
____ 19) "Manny got out of bed and began doing calisthenics during REM sleep, probably because
he was dreaming about boot camp." What is wrong with this statement?
A. Sleep is a relaxed condition of the body and, as such, precludes physical activity.
B. Research shows that no dreaming takes place in REM sleep.
C. Research shows that we are virtually paralyzed in REM sleep.
D. Manny was never in boot camp so he is not likely to be dreaming about it.
____ 20) Alcohol appears to contribute to about __________ percent of student rapes on college
____ 21) The kinesthetic system relates to
A. maintaining the relative position of body parts
B. the location of the body in space
C. the sense of forward acceleration
D. sensing body movement, as in a car
____ 22) Clifford was in an accident and he has lost all the hearing in his right ear. The deafness in
this ear will mostly affect Clifford's ability to
A. localize sounds accurately
B. separate speech sounds from background noise
C. detect high frequency sounds
D. detect high amplitude sounds
____ 23) If you project a red, a green, and a blue light into space, the point at which the three lights
cross will lead to the perception of
A. black light
B. ultraviolet light
C. white light
D. infrared light ____ 24) Evelyn turned the thermostat up from 68 degrees to 70 degrees; however, she doesn't
think it feels any warmer and she wants to turn it up even higher. Her roommate thinks that it
is now too hot, and she wants to turn the thermostat back down. Apparently Evelyn has
A. a smaller just noticeable difference for temperature than her roommate does
B. a lower absolute threshold for temperature than her roommate does
C. a larger just noticeable difference for temperature than her roommate does
D. a higher absolute threshold for temperature, compared to her roommate
____ 25) Which of the following statements about culture and dreams is not accurate?
A. Some basic dream themes appear to be nearly universal across cultures.
B. People in Western societies tend to recall their dreams vividly.
C. In many cultures, dreams are seen as a window into the spiritual world.
D. In Western cultures, dreams are largely written off as insignificant.
____ 26) The idea that hypnosis is associated with divided consciousness and is an altered state is
most consistent with which of the following theories of hypnosis?
A. Barber's role theory
B. Schachter's cognitive theory
C. Freud's psychoanalytic theory
D. Hilgard's dissociation theory
____ 27) Harold begins to chew his fingernails every time his teacher enters the classroom. In this
case the antecedent is
A. the teacher entering the classroom
B. the fear associated with the teacher
C. anticipated punishment
D. chewing the fingernails
____ 28) Sonja put on a new watch this morning and found it uncomfortable because it was so
much heavier than her old watch. However, at noon, when a friend asks her if she knows
what time it is, Sonja finds she has forgotten she is even wearing the watch. The change in
Sonja's sensitivity to the pressure of the watch illustrates the process known as
A. sensory adaptation
B. perceptual invariance
C. perceptual assimilation
D. adjusting just noticeable differences
____ 29) A conditioned stimulus is
A. a stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
B. an unlearned reaction that occurs without previous conditioning
C. a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to elicit
a conditioned response
D. a learned reaction that occurs because of previous conditioning
____ 30) Slow-wave sleep refers to stages __________ and an EEG rhythm of __________.
A. 1 and 2; theta
B. 2 and 3; alpha
C. 1 and 4; theta
D. 3 and 4; delta